Gallary of Images
In Four Sections:
2. Family (By Surname)
4. Misc or Unknown
JUDGE JAMES H. DYER
NANCY WOOLBRIGHT DYER
CASSA SE SUADE
THE EMIGRANT HOTEL
LOCATED IN RIO DE JANEIRO ON THE MORRO DE SUADE
Galveston Beach 1865
Java Class Screw Sloop:
Laid down in 1864 at Boston Navy Yard, Charlestown, Boston, MA.
Hulls designed by Delano and engines by Isherwood
Built of unseasoned wood and with diagonal iron bracing and decayed quickly
Ship rigged with two funnels
Launched, 9 September 1865
Commissioned USS Guerriere, 21 May 1867, CDR. Thomas Corbin, in command
USS Guerriere was assigned as flagship of the South Atlantic from 1867 to 17 June 1869
Decommissioned, 29 July 1869, at New York Navy Yard
Recommissioned, 10 August 1870, at New York
Assigned to transported the body of the late Admiral David G. Farragut from Portsmouth, N. H. to New York in September 1870
Assigned to the Mediterranean Squadron in December 1870
Decommissioned, and laid up in ordinary, 22 March 1872, at New York Navy Yard
Sold 12 December 1872, at New York Navy Yard to D. Buchler of New York
Final Disposition, fate unknown
VIRGIL SEBASTIAN SMITH (Alfred's son)
VIRGIL S. SMITH
Location Of Marriage - Leshur's Rubber Plantation
3 Jan 1902
Tapachula, Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico
The Barnsley Gardens - Today
"WOODLANDS" - What the Yankees did not destroy, a tornado in 1906 did.
JULIA BERNARD BARNSLEY BALTZELLE VON SCHWARTZ
JULIA HENRIETTA SCARBOROUGH
JOHN CALVIN McKNIGHT AND ISABELLA WENK
CHARLERS GRANDISON GUNTER
CHARLES GUNTER - PORTRAIT
ELIZA ANN ADAMS
JOHN WASHINGTON KEYES
JULIA LOUISE MARCELLUS
EULA HENTZ KEYES
Eula Hertz,nee' Keyes, Coachman wearing a cameo (* small picture, on a pin) of husband John William Coachman
Coachman;John William Coachman Dr. Birth 19 April 1845 in Decatur Co., Georga,USA . Death 10 Jul 1918 in São Paulo, Sao Paulo,
DR. JOHN WILLIAM COACHMAN
L-R James Joseph Coachman.(*James Joseph Coachman;Birth 30 Apr 1873 in Montgomery, Alabama Death 24 Jun 1950 in Brazil) , John Keyes Coachman (*John Keyes Coachman;Birth 4 Jul 1878 in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil Death 1940) Kendrick Powel Coachman,(*Kendrick Powell Coachman;Birth 24 Mar 1895 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Death;1953) Hentz Keyes Coachman (*Hentz Keyes Coachman;Birth 4 July 1874 in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Death 7 July 1934 in São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil )
KEYES - COACHMAN FAMILY
TOWN OF LINHARES WITH THE RIO DOCE IN FOREGROUND, - LAKE JUPARANA IN BACKGROUND
The LAST SURVIVING CONFEDERATE IMMIGRANTS IN SANTERAM, BRAZIL
The first Americans residing in Brazil, 1867. NAMES UNKNOWN
Dr. Josiah H. Pitts
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Colonel Miguel Antônio Pinto Guimarães,
Baron de Santarém
Santarem old view, Brazil, at confluence of Tapajos river with Amazon. Created by Riou and Hildibrand, published on Le Tour du Monde, Paris, 1867
SANTEREM AT TIME OF CONFEDERATE SETTLEMENT
Litoral de Santarém at the end of the 19th century.
View of part of the santareno coast at the end of the 19th century, in a photo of the Fidanza Photo. You can see, besides the beach, the houses on Commerce Street, the Municipal Market, the "caisinho" (in the dry season) and, in the background, "Morro da Fortaleza", where the ruins of the old fort are forest covered.
DRAWING OF PALM THATCH WICKHAM HOUSE
DR. JAMES McFADDEN GASTON
SUE G. BRUMBY
On March 2, 1857, the first steamer (the "Star") arrived in the village of Xiririca, initiating a promising period of flow of production and entry of goods from the great centers
IGREJA DE XIRIRICA
XIRIRICA (NOW ELDORADO) TODAY
Artist's rendition of the burning of Columbia, South Carolina
Dr. Gaston's hometown
JOSEPH LONG MINCHIN
JOSEPH LONG MINCHIN
arrived in Brazil in the 19th century.
He fought in Civil War (War of the Secession, 1861-1865, USA) and came to Brazil in 1867, forming a family in the Interior of SP.
Photo courtesy of Ms. Noemia Cullen Pyles (Fraternity of American Offspring - Sta Bárbara D'Oeste / SP
CONFEDERATE VETERANS IN SOUTH AMERICA
An inviitation sent to all Confederate veterans in his community to meet at the home of Robert C. Norris, Villa Americana, Estado de S. Paulo, Brazil, S.A. on August 20, 1012, tobe photographed for the VETERAN, was answered by the following whose pictures appear in the group
Confederate Vereran Magazine 1913 page 169
From left to right, front row: Joseph L. Minchen, aged 71, Company I, 4th Florida Infantry; Louis Demaret, aged 73, Company C, 5th Texas Infantry; William F. Pyles, aged 67, 2d Battalion, Morgan’s Cavalry; E. B. Pyles, aged 66. 2d Battalion, Morgan’s Cavalry.
Second row: Robert C. Norris, aged 75, enlisted under Capt. Theodore O’Hara, author of “Bivouac of the Dead." in Com— pany F, 15th Alabama, promoted to lieutenant, and served as such to the close in Company A, 60th Alabama; \V. ll. Pres~ trige, aged 72, Company A, 3d Alabama Cavalry; X. B. .\[cAlpin, aged 66, Company C, 2d Alabama Cavalry; John R. Buford, aged 72, a Virginia military cadet, assigned to artillery in Hilliard’s Legion; Joseph E. Whitaker, aged 76, enlisted in Company A, 24th Mississippi Infantry, and promoted to lieutenant.
Dr. Yancey Jones and Charles Norris photographed the “boys,” and afterwards the crowd partook of a lunch provided by the hostess. They warmed up, exchanged experiences, and at a late hour dispersed with thanks to the host and hostess, expressing the pleasure afforded to each. A meeting was planned for the coming year
UNKNOWN FAMILY GATHERING
ORIGINAL HERVEY HALL PLANTATION HOME IN COLUMBUS, GEORGIA, A DUPLICATE WAS BUILT IN VILLA AMERCANA
Benjamin Cunningham Yancey and his Brother in Law - John Harrell
LUCY CAINES HALL
MARRIED BENJAMIN C. YANCEY
BENJAMIN CUNNINGHAM YANCEY
CAROLINE BIRD YANCEY
GRAND MOTHER OF BENJAMIN C. YANCEY
JOSEPH WHITAKER & ISABEL NORRIS
MISC. PHOTOS SOME NON-CAPTIONED AND UNKNOWN
PACKING UP AND LEAVING FOR BRAZIL - UNNAMED FAMILY
sAnta Maria de Belém do Grão Pará, or simply Belém, is a city of hospitable people and unique beauty is considered the portal of the Amazon. It occupies an area of 51,600 ha, where more than half represent islands. Low parts of the city and islands are flooded daily by the tidal waters, while the highest areas reach a maximum of 14 m above sea level. Belém has a warm and humid climate, with an average temperature of 26º C and humidity of 80 to 90% normally, and annual rainfall of 2500 to 3000 mm. The rainy season is from December / January to May and the drought from June to November / December. Belém was founded on January 12, 1616 by Captain Francisco Mordeira Castelo Branco, when it was built at the meeting of the rivers Pará and Guamá, at the elevation called by the Tupinambás Indians of Mairi, a wooden fort, covered with straw, called Fort of the Crib. Today there is the Fort of the Castle. Belém lived its apogee during the rubber cycle, when Northeastern immigrants increase their population. By the time of the nineteenth century, Bethlehem began to take on the aspect of great capital, when streets were paved with cobblestones of granite imported from Portugal, large public buildings emerged, telegraph services via submarine cables, drainage of floodwaters The municipal market, hospitals, barracks, cemeteries, all resulted from the strength of the rubber economy, but the peripheral suburbs remained until 1950 as simple clusters and the rural space almost untouched, being a source of extractive products, firewood and charcoal, and place for homes and retreats of families with power. Belém is rich in history, culture and nature, which can be seen in its most exuberant form in each of its islands, true ecological paradises, that surround the city. Belem is rich in colors, smells and flavors, which can be felt in every corner, in the most typical Brazilian cuisine, fruit of the prodigal nature, Portuguese colonization and Indian and African inheritances. This cultural and racial miscegenation is also present in rich handicrafts and folklore, one side a modern city in perfect harmony with nature, worthy of an Amazonian metropolis, and on the other, the secular architecture of Portuguese origin, with a touch of the neoclassical French. The cuisine is exceptional for its variety, with European and Indian elements, more or less mixed. Despite the heat of the region, many foods are hot and spicy, with regional plant broths, such as tucupí, which is taken from cassava. The fruits, with unmistakable and unknown flavors and smells for people from non-tropical regions, can be savored in natura or as juices and ice creams of superior quality. The cuisine is exceptional for its variety, with European and Indian elements, more or less mixed. Despite the heat of the region, many foods are hot and spicy, with regional plant broths, such as tucupí, which is taken from cassava. The fruits, with unmistakable and unknown flavors and smells for people from non-tropical regions, can be savored in natura or as juices and ice creams of superior quality. Ecotourism is an activity that is based on the conservation of the environment, ecosystems, and can and should use the local workforce to develop various activities, directly creating employment and income for local populations, and indirectly for populations. By its nature, strong attraction of domestic and foreign tourists, it is an exporter of services and importer of foreign exchange. It brings foreign money into the region, which is an important source for the general activation of the economy. of strong attraction of domestic and foreign tourists, is an exporter of services and importer of foreign exchange. It brings foreign money into the region, which is an important source for the general activation of the economy. of strong attraction of domestic and foreign tourists, is an exporter of services and importer of foreign exchange. It brings foreign money into the region, which is an important source for the general activation of the economy.
W illiam Hutchinson Norris ( Oglethorpe ,Georgia , 1800 - Americana , Sao Paulo , 1893 ) was an American colonel, lawyer, and senatorfrom Alabama . He arrived in Brazil in 27 of December of 1865 , in the port of Rio de Janeiroand was the first American emigrants to settle on land which at the time belonged to the municipality of Santa Barbara d'Oeste and are now part of the current townAmerican . He fought in the Mexican-American War , where he received his colonel rank.
William Hutchinson Norris was born in the state of Georgia but spent most of his life in Alabama in the city of Mobile . He fought in the Mexican-American War , where he received his colonel rank . His sons Robert, Frank, Reece, and Clay Norris fought in the American Civil WarRobert Noris was named sergeant major and fought in several battles, not being hit by luck. He was promoted to lieutenant in the 60th Alabama Regiment and discharged on September 20 , 1864 . At age 65, Colonel Norris came to Brazil to plant cottonalong with his son Robert Norris.
In 1866 , William and his son climbed the Serra do Mar , stopped in São Paulo and speculated lands. They were offered free lands where today is the neighborhood of Brás , but he did not accept because it was swamp. They also offered them the land where St. Caetano is today , and refused for the same reason. They decided to go to Campinas , but at the time, the railroad was only 20 kilometers beyond São Paulo , and it was no advantage to catch it, and Campinasis 90 kilometers from São Paulo. Then the Norris bought a ox cart and headed for Campinas. It took them 15 days to reach the city, and there they stayed for a while looking for land, until they cast their sights on the plain that stretched from Campinas to Vila Nova da Constituição (now Piracicaba ).
The Norris bought land from the sesmaria of Domingos da Costa Machado and settled on the banks of Ribeirao Quilombo , where today it is the center of the city of Americana . As soon as he arrived, Colonel Norris began to teach practical agricultural courses to farmers in the region, interested in cotton cultivation and new agricultural techniques. The plow he brought from the United Statescaused so much sensation and curiosity that, in a short time, they already had a practical school of agriculture, with many students who paid him for the privilege of learning and still cultivating his fields. The Colonel wrote to his family that he had gotten $ 5,000 from that. In the middle of 1867 the rest of his family arrived accompanied by many relatives.
Anda very hot day in January 1866 in Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Empire, when the two men met at the Hotel dos Estrangeiros. Both were tall, light-skinned and integrated with Freemasonry. The similarities stopped there. One of them was Dom Pedro II, the proud monarch of the tropics. His interlocutor, Colonel William Hutchinson Norris, maintained the guise of an officer in the Confederate army and a senator from Alabama, a US state. Arrived in Brazil on December 27, 1865, he still carried in the body marks of the war that his country had fought against Mexico. His sons Robert, Frank, Reece and Clay had fought in the Civil War ( see text below), which cost the lives of more than 600,000 compatriots. And it could not be said that the situation of the emperor was better: the Paraguayan War had begun about a year ago, which would bring to death a similar number of Brazilians, Paraguayans, Argentines, and Uruguayans.
The rest of the Norris family would come four months later, with 35 more immigrants, on the Talismam sailing boat, which had left the port of New Orleans. The saga of US immigration to Brazil began at that meeting - a contingent of about 2,700 people, the largest migratory current in US history. The Brazilian monarch was very interested in the arrival of these men, so much that he had installed an immigration office in New York, under the command of Quintino Bocaiúva.
The cotton fields of the Confederate states, as a result of the war, were devastated, and Pedro II wanted the immigrants to repeat in Brazil the success with this culture in their native homeland. A certain ideological identification between the Empire and the South of the United States - slave and agrarian, in contrast to the north, industrialized and abolitionist - helps explain the preference for Brazil. After defeated, the Southerners saw, with horror, the invasion of their lands by the victorious soldiers, who destroyed the plantations and also their aristocratic farms.
By train, most of the newcomers went to Santos and later to Jundiaí. From there, they went to the city of São Bárbara d'Oeste, where they founded the largest American community in the country, giving birth to the American neighbor - at that time Villa Americana -, 124 kilometers from São Paulo.
Rich man, with the gold he brought, Colonel Norris would buy the hacienda Machado and the slaves Manuel and Jorge, to whom he would teach English, with a southern accent. The rest of the community could only acquire smaller areas and survive with more difficulty, knocking down the native forest to plant. In the beginning, the newcomers would only live among themselves, strangely speaking the language, the customs and even the physical appearance of the Brazilians, generally dark-haired, bulky, with dark eyes, in contrast to them, blond and light- almost all thin and tall.
Almost 50 years later, the Americans would face other immigrants, who would presumably later become their mortal enemies. They were refugees from the 1917 Revolution in their land, who would settle in New Odessa, only three miles from Americana, where their compatriots had lived since the beginning of the century. But since the Americans were not Yankees and the Russians were not even sympathetic to communism, the contact between the two communities, both of which were made up of farmers, was always peaceful even in the Cold War.
Over time, Americans would begin to integrate with the local community, which gave rise to some picturesque situations. One of them came from the watermelon seeds, known as the "Georgia rattlesnake," which they had brought in their luggage. By 1890, an outbreak of yellow fever coincided with one of the earliest fruit crops, and health authorities vetoed her sale because she thought it transmitted the disease. It was necessary that the scientist Oswaldo Cruz discovered the cause of the disease so that the watermelon trade, prohibited for more than a decade, was released.
In addition to cotton of a type superior to the one existing in the country, the Americans would introduce other novelties in Brazilian agriculture, such as the animal-drawn plow instead of the limited hoe, and a metal wheel trolley that supplanted the heavy ox carts . But it was in education that they made their greatest contribution, through missionary schools and their schoolmasters (teachers) and schoolmarms (teachers). From the methods used by the pastors who accompanied the immigrants from Santa Bárbara and Americana, a new model of education emerged, which was eventually absorbed by the Brazilian government - the so-called "decoreba" and the physical punishments, very common in the education of that period, were abolished. Presbyterian missionary Mary Chamberlain and her husband, Rev. George Chamberlain, founded the American School in São Paulo, which would give rise to the current Mackenzie University. The creators of the Methodist University of Piracicaba (Unimep) also left the community.
In terms of religion, the Americans would introduce Protestantism into Brazil. The first chapel of the country that served the three denominations - Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist - was erected in Campo Cemetery, spiritual center of the community in Santa Bárbara, dating from 1878. In the assistance area, the immigrants also made their contribution: Pérola Byington (1879-1963) founded the Pro-Childhood Crusade and the hospital that bears his name in São Paulo.
It could also be said that the confederates helped create Brazilian rock. Rita Lee Jones, co-founder of the Mutants, is the daughter of dentist Charles Jones, a descendant of Colonel Norris.
To this day, the descendants of these immigrants make a point of maintaining their traditions. On the property where the Campo Cemetery is located, on lands that belonged to Colonel Anthony Oliver, every second Sunday in April, the community, represented by the non-governmental organization Fraternidad Desendencia Americana, is amused by old songs and dances typical of the rebel south with the boys dressed in Confederate soldiers and the girls as clones of Scarlett O'Hara in And the Wind Took. At such times, the cars display the Confederate flag.
During the celebration, everyone savors typical dishes such as fried chicken, cornflakes, biscuits, ham, cakes, pies and refreshments. From time to time, they are visited by "cousins" from the southern states. In 1972, one of them, then Governor of Georgia, Jimmy Carter, visited the Field Cemetery four years before becoming president of the United States. His wife, Rosalyn, has a great-uncle buried there. Curiously, the community was the subject of a study by Eugene C. Harter, a journalist and former US consul in São Paulo, who wrote the book The Lost Colony of the Confederation, which was very successful in his country.
Allison Jones, a public relations officer for the NGO representing the community, says she was discriminated against in New York because of her English accent, and was a victim of explicit racism on the part of New York blacks. In the south, when traveling in a bus with 40 passengers, all black, except him and the driver, the feeling was diverse. "Although Brazilian, I felt at home and I was treated well by all."
A student of Unimep's history and descendant of Richard (Dick) Crisp, an American who challenged the racism of his own community by marrying a black slave, Frederico Padovese participated five years ago in an experience that has relegated him to the past. Through a fraternity agreement with the Virginia-based Sons of Confederate Veterans (or SCV) NGO, he joined a Confederate battalion in the re-creation of the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in July 1863. In the midst of cannons and weapons of the time, he slept in tents and ate the bland ranch.
The university says it is proud of its origin, but the feeling is not directed at the United States as a whole, but at the south of the country. "When I hear of US imperialism, I say that the Civil War was the first US imperialist onslaught, in the case against a part of its own people, who wanted the separation to disagree with the central government," he says. To this day, much of the descendants of immigrants refer to themselves as confederates and to the North Americans as Yankees, the same nickname given to the inhabitants of that nation by their opponents, among which are members of leftist currents and militants anti-globalization.
Healthy and active at age 88, Maria Weissinger of the Cross is one of the oldest descendants of Americans in Santa Barbara. His grandfather, John Wesley Weissinger, when he arrived in 1866, would win the nickname "John of Mato", because the Brazilians had difficulty speaking his name.
With a strong hickory accent, Dona Maria, as she is known, brings in the traces the mark of Anglo-Saxon origin. The main memories of his youth are the dances, practically frequented only by people of the community. "The parties were very fun, they were always held on the farm of someone from the colony. The girls did everything to go," she says.
On a visit to the city, Dona Maria, who was then living at the Palmeiras farm, met the Portuguese João da Cruz, who would become, against the will of the family, her husband. His father, Albert, wanted his children to marry within the community. At the time of the ceremony, the priest, who did not want to officiate because she was a Presbyterian, was surprised. "Shortly before, I had converted to Catholicism, and I showed him the document, which was disconcerted," he says. The father - who would still have to sour the fact that the three other children marry a Brazilian, a German and an Italian - appeared the next day and apologized.
The Brazilians said, according to her, that the chain of the city, inaugurated in 1896, would be used to arrest the Americans. Some of them, rich and famous as badgers, would enter the bars on horseback and ask for drips, which they drank without dismounting. Others, especially the Texans, would take to the streets and discharge their revolvers as if they were in the Old West. Today, the old building houses the Museum of Immigration.
Racism, although it manifested itself without the violence that characterized it in the post-war southern US, was another hallmark of the community. There are, however, few records of Americans who mistreated slaves. João do Mato had two, Manuel and Anastasia, with whom he had a good relationship. Edwin Britt even left his lands for a slave. Still, Dick Crisp, who had ten children with the slave Damiana, suffered discrimination on the part of his compatriots.
In an episode in 1873, however, portrayed in Judith Mac Knight Jones' book Soldier Rest !, three young men from the community - Napoleon Mc Alpine, Robert Mac Fadden and Dick Crisp - hanged a slave who had slain the Colonel Oliver, owner of the Campo Cemetery area. The farmer had caught him stealing potatoes, and with the same instrument he had dug, the man killed him.
In disgust, the young confederates, recalling similar crimes in their homeland, hanged the slave and left him hanging from a tree on Oliver's own farm. The three would then make a pact under which they would never denounce. It was only after everyone was dead that the names were revealed. The story recalls the haunting actions of the Ku Klux Klan in the postwar United States.
If, however, there is something that the descendants of the immigrants do not accept, it is the interpretation that their ancestors, when coming here, would somehow want to help perpetuate slavery in Brazil. "When the confederates arrived, slavery was already declining in the country and would be peacefully abolished in 1888," says Daniel Carr de Muzio, one of the most active members of the community.
Similar opinion has the distinguished descendant of a Confederate captain who settled in Rio Grande do Sul, Judge Ellen Gracie Northfleet, vice president of the Federal Supreme Court (STF), Hamlin Lassiter Norfleet's great-granddaughter. Based on the view of some contemporary historians, she considers that the Civil War was actually motivated much more by the clash between two economic ideas than by racial issues, which would be only part of the explanation for the origin of the conflict. "My great-grandfather never had any slaves or made any manifestation of a racist nature," he explains.
In more modern times, the year 1998 would have left the community a defeat, much less harsh, of course, than that of 1865. In that year, the cross of St. Andrew (in the form of an "x") was removed from the American coat of arms and replaced by that of the patron Saint Anthony. "The Italians asked for the exchange, because they thought the symbol was very noticeable for the Americans and there was not much left for them," explains Allison's wife, Eloisa Nascimbem Jones.
Brazil in conflict
Although it has declared neutrality, Brazil has never managed to disguise its sympathy for the South of the USA. According to historian Luiz Alberto Moniz Bandeira, our US ambassador to the United States, Miguel Maria Lisboa, feared that the abolitionist movement in that country would spread and arrive here. The Foreign Minister, Magalhães Taques, acknowledged the state of belligerence, admitting the existence in that period of two nations in the current US. Because of the Brazilian position in the face of the war, the two countries have twice suspended their diplomatic relations.
The US ambassador to Brazil, General J. Watson Webb, accused the country of breaking neutrality in favor of the south, because southern ships found, unlike the Northerners, a welcome in Brazilian ports.
In October of 1864, a cruiser from the north of the United States captured a Confederate ship in Bahia. Brazil protested against the violation of its territorial waters, and US Secretary of State William H. Seward went so far as to say that if the country continued to protect southern ships, it would be preferable to declare war on it. Shortly thereafter, the Americans would apologize for the incident, and Brazil then came to recognize only the central US government.
The fears of our ambassador would be confirmed later. With the abolition of slavery in the United States, Brazil, which was the last country besides Cuba to maintain slaves, would begin to undergo great internal and external pressure to free them. A young Bahian law student, Castro Alves, would publish several poems in Republican newspapers demanding the end of slavery. In 1871, the emperor himself would approach for the first time the subject of the liberation of the slaves in the Speech of the Throne - a kind of accountability of the government to the Congress. Until, in 1888, his daughter, Princess Isabel, would sign the abolition of slavery.
The War of Secession, which broke out in the United States early in 1861, was a consequence of decades of disagreements and power struggles that culminated in the decision of 11 southern states (Alabama, Arkansas, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia) to separate from the Union and form another nation, the Confederate States of America. At the root of the problem were trade and tariff issues, but mainly slavery, on which the competitiveness of southern agricultural products depended on the external market, especially cotton, which was vital to the English textile industry.
The armed conflict - which involved about 4 million soldiers and left more than 600,000 dead - began on April 12, 1861, in South Carolina, when Confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter, and ended in 1865 with the surrender of Southern generals Robert Lee in Appomattox on April 9 and JE Johnston in Greensboro on April 26.
There were significant differences between the belligerents. The northern states and territories, where 23 million people lived, as well as making their own armaments, had a powerful squadron and better conditions to replenish battle losses. The Confederate side of the rural economy, with a population of 9 million, of which about 3.5 million were slaves, depended on arms purchased abroad. With the defeat of the Southerners, the central power of the Union was strengthened, slavery was abolished and important social and economic changes were implemented in the country.
Albert G. Carr: Served as a Soldier in Company A of 56th Alabama Partisan Rangers.
Benjamin C. Yancey: Captain of Artillery in 16th Battalion Alabama Sharpshooters. He returned to the United States after living in Brazil for some time.
Benjamin Norris: served as Cabo at Company H of the 33rd Alabama Infantry. It was rendered in Montgomery, Alabama, on May 13, 1865.
Calvin McKnight: Captain of McKnight's Volunteers Company of Hill Co. Mounted Men, 28th Brigade, Texas Militia. He enlisted for a period of three months in de militia on August 10, 1861, in Hill County, Texas and was promoted to Captain on September 19, 1861. When his time of service ma militia ended, he served as a Soldier and Sergeant in de Co. I of Burford's 19th Texas Cavalry. He enrolled on April 2, 1862 in Dresden, Navarro Co, TX at the Company of Capt. Samuel Wright who was later renamed Company I. He was 36 years old, sixty feet tall, and was a resident of Hill County, TX. He defined his occupation as a "farmer." He camped in Dallas in April and June of 1862. He was promoted to 3rd Sergeant on October 19, 1862. He was promoted 2nd Sergeant on October 1, 1863 and was present when the regiment was extinguished on May 25, 1865, in Marshall, Texas. The 19th Texas Cavalry fought mainly in Arkansas, Louisiana and Missouri in more than 30 battles, most notably Marmaduke's Missouri Raid, and the battles of Helena, Arkansas, Sabine Cross Roads, Louisiana and Natchitoches, Louisiana. Capt.
William AH Terrell: Company D of 8th Louisiana Cavalry, CSA. Dalton Yancey: Captain, Alabama State Militia. returned to the US after living in Brazil for some time.
Dr. Joseph Pitts: from Tennessee, probably Captain of the 11th Tennessee Infantry.
Ezekiel B. Pyles:Soldier, Company A, 11th Kentucky Cavalry & Company D, Dortch's 2nd Battalion Kentucky Cavalry. Originally, he enlisted in Company A, 11th Kentucky Cavalry in September 1862, and accompanied Gen. John Hunt Morgan in his large "Ohio Raid." He escaped to the Ohio River on Buffington Island, and joined Morgan's other soldiers at Dortch's 2nd Battalion Kentucky Cavalry Co. in August, 1863, in Knoxville, Tennessee. He fought in Tennessee and Georgia and at the Battle of Saltville, Virginia, on October 2, 1864. He was assigned to the brigade of Gen. Basil W. Dick and was captured in Kingsport, Tennessee, on December 13, 1864. He was taken to Camp Chase, Ohio, where he was arrested until February 17, when he was transferred to Point Lookout, Maryland, for exchange. After the exchange, was admitted to the Confederate Military Hospital in Richmond, VA on February 26, 1865. He had been licensed from the hospital for 30 days on March 6, 1865, and returned to Southwest Virginia where he returned to his unit. When the rest of his unit was extinguished on April 12, 1865, he refused to surrender and went to Greensboro, South Carolina, where he became part of the last guard of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Having received a discharge from President Davis, he surrendered in Washington, Georgia, on May 10, 1865. He moved to Brazil and was alive at age 66, in 1913. refused to surrender and went to Greensboro, South Carolina, where he became part of the last guard of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Having received a discharge from President Davis, he surrendered in Washington, Georgia, on May 10, 1865. He moved to Brazil and was alive at age 66, in 1913. refused to surrender and went to Greensboro, South Carolina, where he became part of the last guard of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Having received a discharge from President Davis, he surrendered in Washington, Georgia, on May 10, 1865. He moved to Brazil and was alive at age 66, in 1913.
Frank McMullen: He was born in Walker County, Georgia in 1835. During the War Between the States, he lived in Mexico and had numerous meetings with Mexican officials to discuss matters relating to the Confederacy. McMullen was amnestied on May 29, 1865.
George S. Barnsley: Assistant Surgeon, 8th Georgia Infantry (Rome Lt. Guards). He enlisted as a soldier at Co. A, 8th Georgia Infantry, in Floyd County, Georgia on May 18, 1861. He was assigned a hospital assistant on December 24, 1862. He participated in most of the battles of the Army of Northern Virginia, including Gettysburg. He was seconded to the Medical Department in Richmond, VA in 1864 and was appointed Assistant Surgeon on March 22, 1865. He was captured when the Yankees seized the city in April 1865.
George Washington Carr: He was 1st Lieutenant and Assistant Surgeon at Co. A of the 56th Alabama Partisan Rangers.
Green Ferguson: Soldier in Company L of the South Carolina State Troops. He enrolled in Rich Hill County, South Caolina on August 1, 1863, and fought Sherman during his March to the Sea. He surrendered near Columbia, South Carolina in April, 1865.
Henry Clay Norris: Company G, 15th Confederate Cavalry. The unit was stationed in Mobile and Pensacola and fought in the battles of Tunica, Louisiana and Claiborne, AL. It was surrendered on April 30, 1865, in Demopolis, Alabama. was the son of William H. Norris and was born in Dallas Co, Alabama, on June 1, 1842. He died on January 20, 1912 in Villa Americana, Brazil.
Henry Farrar Steagall: Joined in 1862 in the Company of the Capt. John R. Smith of Gonzales County (Texas) Cavalry, who became Co. B of Waul's Texas Legion. At the time of his enlistment, he was described as 41 years old, born in North Carolina, married, and residing in Gonzales County, Texas. It was counted as present in the June 13, 1862 call, Camp Waul, Washington County, Texas. He was captured on the Fall of Vicksburg, Mississippi, on July 4, 1863. He was traded on September 12, 1863, and transferred to Texas. He was present at the service on May 16, 1865, in Galveston, Texas, as a soldier, although at least one service relation designated him as Second Lieutenant.
John Barkley MacFadden: Born in South Carolina in 1864 and enlisted on August 13, 1861 in Yorkville, SC, as a soldier in Company C of the 12th South Carolina Infantry. Later, he was transferred to Company B and participated in the battles of Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Sharpsburg, Fredricksburg, and the Petesburg border. It was rendered with Gen. Lee at Appomattox on April 9, 1865.
John Henry Rowe: He was born on February 22, 1846, in the United States and died on December 16, 1922. He married Sara L.?. He was a resident of Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, at the beginning of the War. He enlisted as a Soldier in Company F of the 50th Alabama Infantry in March 1862 and fought at the Battle of Shiloh, Tennessee. The 50th Alabama Infantry originally had the name of Coltart's 26th Alabama Infantry, but was renamed 50th in June of 1863. It was commanded by Colonel John C. Coltartt. The 50th also fought in Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Atlanta and Franklin. The regiment was surrendered in April 1865 in South Carolina. John Henry Rowe wascaptured during the war at the Battle of Resaca, Georgia. In 1864 he was taken to Douglas Field of Prisoners of War in Chicago, Illinois. He was held there until March 15, 1865, when he was sent to Point Lookout, Maryland, where he was changed on April 12, 1865.
John Henry Scurlock: He enrolled in Company I of the 6th Texas Cavalry in Dallas, Texas, in September 1861. He fought in the battles of Elkhorn Tavern, Corinth, Hatchie Bridge and the Atlanta Campaign. It was surrendered in Mississippi in May, 1865.
John R. Bufford: Joined April, 1862 in Eufaula, Alabama, and was appointed Sergeant in the Captain Reuben Koulb's Battery at Barbour Alabama Light Artillery. He was transferred on November 6, 1864, as a soldier, to the Eufaula Battery of the Alabama Light Artillery. He attended St. Mary's Hospital in Union Springs, AL, from September 29, 1864 to November 6, 1864, but participated in the battles of the Kentucky Campaign, Hood's Tennessee Campaign, and Chickamauga, and obtained his freedom in Meridian, May 10, 1865. On his release, he mentioned Eufaula, AL. He moved to Brazil and was alive in 1913 at 72 years of age.
Jonathan Ellsworth: 1st Arkansas Brigade, to the drum.
Joseph E. Whitaker: 2nd Lieutenant and 1st Lieutenant, Company A and L, 24th Mississippi Infantry. He fought in the battles of Lookout Mountain, Chickamauga, and Franklin, at Walthall's Brigade. He was slightly injured in Franklin. also participated in the Battle of Bentonville, South Carolina, and was promoted during the final days of War for 1st Lieutenant of Company L of the 24th Mississippi Infantry. He surrendered in Greensboro, North Carolina in April 1865. He moved to Brazil and was alive in 1917, at the age of 81.
Joseph Long Minchin: Co. I, 4th Florida Infantry, Ordinance Sergeant, and Prison Guard in Andersonville, Georgia. He was still alive in 1913, at age 71. Born near Thomasville, Georgia in January 1841, he moved to Florida as a child. He enlisted in 1861, and fought in Chickamauga and Atlanta. was surrendered in Macon, Georgia, in April 1865. He married Julia Antoinette Pyles on March 15, 1866. She was born near Macon, Georgia in 1849. They moved to Brazil on June 24, 1867. He worked as a foreman on a coffee plantation and later acquired his own 900-acre site. Maora in Nova Odessa, Brazil, in 1921.
Joseph Meriwether: He enrolled in Company H of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers in December of 1861 and participated in the bombing of Ft.Sunter. His unit was extinguished in July of 1861 and he reigned in Edgefield, South Carolina, in August 1863, as a soldier in Company D of the 1st South Carolina Infantry. He served under General Robert E. Lee in the Northern Virginia Army until surrender at Appomattox on April 9, 1865.
LS Bowen: served with a soldier in Company A of the 8th Texas Cavalry (also called Terry's Texas Rangers). He fought in Shiloh, Chickamauga, Murfreesboro, Knoxville, the Atlanta Campaign, and surrendered in Georgia on April 26, 1865. Louis Demaret: Soldier, Co. C, 5th Texas Infantry. He fought in the battles of Seven Pines, Cold Harbor, Gettysburg, Chickamauga and Petersburg. He moved to Brazil and was alive in 1913, at age 73.
Lucien Barnsley: Soldier, Company A, 8th Georgia Infantry (Rome Lt. Guards). He enlisted on May 18, 1861, in Floyd County, Georgia, and participated in most of the battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia, including Gettysburg. In October of 1864, he was appointed as a soldier on a Dr. Miller team in the Medical Department in Greensboro, North Carolina, and surrendered when the city was occupied by the Yankees in April 1865. He was called Major by the other Confederate officers during and after the war. Apparently he was assigned Major and sent to diplomatic service in Mexico under the orders of the Confederate Consul John T. Pickett.
Napoleon Bonaparte McAlpine: He was a soldier in Co. C, 2nd Alabama Cavalry. He was enlisted on March 22, 1862 in at Eutaw, Alabama. The records indicate that he was on the call list from August 31 to October 31, 1863, which means he was stationed in Okolona, MS but had returned to service. The unit fought in Atlanta and the Carolinas and participated in the last guard of President Jefferson Davis, and surrendered in May, 1865, in Forsyth, GA. He moved to Brazil and was alive in 1913, at 66 or 68 years.
Niels Nielson: Alabama Unity.
Raibon Steagall: In 1850 he was a resident of Franklin County, North Carolina. He enlisted in the Confederate States Army in Robeson County, North Carolina, and was appointed on September 6, 1861, as 2nd Lieutenant of Company A of the 31st North Carolina Infantry. He was born in 1831 in North Carolina.
Robert Cicero Norris:Soldier, Company F, 15th Alabama Infantry and 1st Lieutenant Company A, 60th Alabama Infantry. He was alive in 1913, at age 75. He was born on March 7, 1837, in Perry County, Alabama, but resided in Dallas County, Alabama. He was the son of William H. Norris, and studied at Fulton Academy and Mobile Medical College. He enlisted on January 28, 1861, under Captain Theodore O'Hara to take the Pensacola Navy Yard. On July 3, 1861, he enlisted in Co. F, 15th Alabama Infantry, in the Stonewall Jackson Brigade. In 1862, he was appointed Major Major, and in 1864, he was appointed 1st Lieutenant of Co. A, 60th Alabama Infantry. He was injured 4 times and fought at Malvern Hill, Cold Harbor, Cedar Run, 2nd Manassas, Sharpsburg, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, Wilderness, Petersburg, etc. He was captured at Hatcher's Run and maintained in Ft. Delaware until June 17, 1865. He moved to Brazil in 1865, but returned in 1890 to finish his medical course. He returned to Vila Americana in Brazil and practiced medicine. He was a Mason master. died on May 14, 1913, in Brazil.
Robert Cullen:He enlisted in the Confederate Army on June 15, 1862 in Dallas, Texas, as a soldier in Company A of RM Gano's Squadron of the Texas Cavalry. Later in the same month, his company was transferred and became Company A of Gano's 7th Kentucky Cavalry in the famous cavalry command of Gen. John Hunt Morgan. Soldier Cullen fought in Gallatin, Tennessee at the Battle of Murfreesboro, and in Morgan's famous "Ohio Raid" attack in 1863. Cullen's Soldier swam across the Ohio River to avoid capture. He managed to get to Sparta, Tennessee, where he rejoined the rest of Morgan's command. He joined Company D of Dortch's 2nd Battalion of Kentucky Cavalry, with Ezequiel and William Pyles. These men served together and fought most of the battles around Atlanta. In the last days of the War,
Robert Meriwether:He enlisted in the Confederate Army before there was an army! He was captain of Company H of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers. This regiment fired THE FIRST SHOTS at Fort Sumter, the action that officially initiated the War Between States. The 1st South Carolina Volunteers was extinguished shortly after the surrender of Fort Sumter and Captain Meriwether joined the 6th Battalion of South Carolina Reserves and was promoted to Major as commanding officer of the battalion. The 6th Battalion of South Carolina served as guards of the Florence, South Carolina prison until November 1864. On November 5, 1864, the 6th registered 262 men as gifts for service. On November 3, 1864, Major Meriwether was ordered to take his battalion to Augusta, Georgia, and to fight General Yankee Sherman and his March to the Sea. For the next four months the battalion participated in numerous battles against Sherman in Georgia, South Carolina Carolina, and North Carolina. On March 31, 1865, Major Meriwether was with 6th near Smithfield, North Carolina, under the command of Gen. Joseph E. Johnson. 6th Fought at the Battle of Bentonville, NC, and was present for service at Blanchard's Brigade near Raleigh, NC, on April 10, 1865. Major Meriwether was surrendered in Greensboro, NC in May, 1865, after being surrounded by Gen. Johnson. He returned to South Carolina, but moved to Brazil in August 1865, to become one of the first Confederates. under the command of Gen. Joseph E. Johnson. 6th Fought at the Battle of Bentonville, NC, and was present for service at Blanchard's Brigade near Raleigh, NC, on April 10, 1865. Major Meriwether was surrendered in Greensboro, NC in May, 1865, after being surrounded by Gen. Johnson. He returned to South Carolina, but moved to Brazil in August 1865, to become one of the first Confederates. under the command of Gen. Joseph E. Johnson. 6th Fought at the Battle of Bentonville, NC, and was present for service at Blanchard's Brigade near Raleigh, NC, on April 10, 1865. Major Meriwether was surrendered in Greensboro, NC in May, 1865, after being surrounded by Gen. Johnson. He returned to South Carolina, but moved to Brazil in August 1865, to become one of the first Confederates.
Robert Porter Thomas: Served as a Soldier on Company F of 32nd Texas Cavalry.
Thomas Lafayette Keese: was a Confederate soldier. He enlisted as a soldier in Wood's 36th Texas Cavalry Co. B in 1862 and fought in the battles of Pleasant Hill and Mansfield, Louisiana. surrendered with his regiment on June 2 in Galveston, Texas. He died on September 23, 1894 and rests at the Campo Cemetery in Santa Bárbara D'Oeste, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Thomas Stewart McKnight: Soldier, Co. I, Burford's 19th Texas Cavalry. He was Calvin McKnight's brother. He enrolled on April 2, 1862, in Dresden, Navarro County, Texas, at the age of 34. He defined his occupation as "blacksmith." served with honor until discharge on August 13, 1864, based on a certificate from a surgeon who attested to be physically disabled for military service
William A. Prestrige: Soldier, Co. A, 3rd Alabama Cavalry. He enlisted on September 25, 1861, in Mount Sterling, Alabama. was present in all actions of this regiment, including Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, the Atlanta Campaign, and Bentonville, and was released in Charlotte, North Carolina, in May 1865. He moved to Brazil and was alive at 73 in 1913.
William F. Pyles: Soldier, Company A, 11th Kentucky Cavalry and Company D, Dortch's 2nd Battalion Kentucky Cavalry. He was the brother of Ezekiel Pyles, and originally joined Company A of the 11th Kentucky Cavalry in September 1862. He accompanied John Hunt Morgan in the Great Ohio Raid, and escaped capture by swimming on the Ohio River at Buffington Island, Ohio. He joined the remainder of Morgan's command at Company D of Dortch's 2nd Battalion Kentucky Cavalry in August 1863 in Knoxville, Tennessee, and fought in Georgia and Tennessee, and at the Battle of Saltville, Virginia, in October 1864. He was transferred for Gen. Basil W. Duke's Brigade and was captured in Kingsport, Tennessee, on December 31, 1864. He was taken to Camp Chase, Ohio, where he remained until he was transferred to Point Lookout, Maryland for exchange on February 17 of 1865. He reigned at his command in southwestern Virginia. refused to surrender when his unit was extinguished near Christiansburg, VA on April 12 and arrived in Greensboro, North Carolina, where he became part of the final escort of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. After being released from service by President Davis, he surrendered in Washington, Georgia, on May 10, 1865. He moved to Brazil and was alive in 1913, at age 67.
William Meriwether: Joined Company H of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers in Barnwell, SC, in December 1860 and took part in the bombing of Ft. Sumter. He enlisted for a period of only six months and was discharged in July 1861.
Since the end of the War of Secession, much has been said and written by all who wish to find the truth about the most cruel and bloody war in North America. Few realize that this War reaped more lives than any other wars in North America. The Civil War cost more than 600,000 lives and ruined the Southern economy. The marks remained forever. The immigration of Southerners to Brazil after the War is a curious and interesting event: a direct result of the war.
This wave of immigration, which must have reached 9,000 people, originated the community of descendants of southern immigrants, known as "The Confederates." The descendants are spread all over Brazil, but the largest community, and most importantly, is located in the state of São Paulo. This community, founded by Southerners, gave rise to the city of Americana and its mother town, Vila de Santa Bárbara (now known as Santa Bárbara D'Oeste). Both a few miles away, they are the center of gravity of the southern-descendant community in Brazil. Since 1954, the American Descent Fraternity has its headquarters there. The descendants gather in the Field Cemetery every second Sunday of each quarter (January, April, July and October) for a service, discussion of matters related to the Fraternity and a traditional snack. Each family brings food and drinks, and everyone delights in this community lunch, with typical Brazilian and southern dishes. The elders talk in English with a characteristic accent from the southern United States, while the children play, speaking Portuguese and little English. The country cemetery is located in the countryside, surrounded by sugar cane fields. It is 10 miles from Americana and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. These two cities are 160 kilometers from the city of São Paulo, the largest in the country and capital of the state of São Paulo. "Soldier rest! Thy warfare o'er Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking Days of toil or nights of waking." with typical Brazilian and southern dishes. The elders talk in English with a characteristic accent from the southern United States, while the children play, speaking Portuguese and little English. The country cemetery is located in the countryside, surrounded by sugar cane fields. It is 10 miles from Americana and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. These two cities are 160 kilometers from the city of São Paulo, the largest in the country and capital of the state of São Paulo. "Soldier rest! Thy warfare o'er Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking Days of toil or nights of waking." with typical Brazilian and southern dishes. The elders talk in English with a characteristic accent from the southern United States, while the children play, speaking Portuguese and little English. The country cemetery is located in the countryside, surrounded by sugar cane fields. It is 10 miles from Americana and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. These two cities are 160 kilometers from the city of São Paulo, the largest in the country and capital of the state of São Paulo. "Soldier rest! Thy warfare o'er Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking Days of toil or nights of waking." It is 10 miles from Americana and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. These two cities are 160 kilometers from the city of São Paulo, the largest in the country and capital of the state of São Paulo. "Soldier rest! Thy warfare o'er Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking Days of toil or nights of waking." It is 10 miles from Americana and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. These two cities are 160 kilometers from the city of São Paulo, the largest in the country and capital of the state of São Paulo. "Soldier rest! Thy warfare o'er Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking Days of toil or nights of waking."
"Soldiers rest! Your struggle is over. Sleep eternal sleep, where there is no habit of fatigue, or nights of waking."
This is the inscription on the tombstone of Confederate Veteran Napoleon Bonaparte McAlpine, who is in the Field Cemetery among other Veterans and Confederate leaders. Of these, the most prominent and true founder of the Confederate Colony was Colonel William Hutchinson Norris, born in Oglethorpe, Georgia . He moved to Alabama and later became a Texas Senator after living in Dallas for several years. Colonel Norris was a lawyer, and is mentioned in the book "Reminiscences of Public Men of Alabama." When the carpetbaggers invaded the South at the end of the War, Colonel Norris reunited his family and headed to Brazil. The Emperor Dom Pedro II personally welcomed the Southerners, thanks to the contacts that Colonel Norris had in Freemasonry and the interest that Brazil had in the refined agricultural techniques that the Southern ones brought, notably in the cultivation of cotton. Unlike some biased versions, Southerners did not immigrate in a failed attempt to perpetuate slavery. When they arrived, the system was in decline in Brazil, and slavery would be peacefully abolished in 1888. Colonel Norris, a veteran of the Mexican War, was about sixty years old when the Civil War broke out. His sons Reece, Frank, Robert and Clay fought for the South. Robert Norris served in the 15th Alabama Infantry Regiment with Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, in the Northern Virginia Army. After 57 battles, only 247 of the 1250 regiment survived. Robert was injured several times and in 1864 was captured and sent to a North Carolina prison, Fort Delaware. Thanks to the Sons of Confederate Veterans, we have information on the military service of many other Confederate Veterans. For example: Lucien and George Barnsley, from the 5th Georgia Infantry Regiment, from Rome, Floyd County (This unit was known as Rome Light Guards, Lucien was a captain.German was a medical officer- see relationship for more information). acquired land in the state of São Paulo at 22 cents per acre, and also in Espírito Santo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina. Some went to Santarém, Pará, the Vale do Rio Doce and Iguape, on the coast of São Paulo, but most of them settled in the village of Santa Bárbara. This community was the most important, and would originate the city of Americana, now a textile and industrial center. The Campo Cemetery, which would become the spiritual center of the Confederate colony in Brazil, was founded because of restrictions being placed on burials of non-Catholics in municipal cemeteries. After the death of Beatrice Oliver in 1868, the Southerners decided to follow the tradition and dedicate the "God's Acre" as the place for the rest of their dead. The old Oliver farm was a convenient place, and its highest point was not suitable for farming. It became, then, the unofficial cemetery of the community and, in 1954, the Brotherhood American Descent was constituted to maintain the cemetery. Years later, Ross Pyles donated the land legally to the Brotherhood. During their early years in the new homeland, Southerners, for cultural reasons, avoided mingling with Brazilians. However, with the evolution of the community and the arrival of new immigrants, they became Brazilian de facto and married Italians, Poles, Germans, Dutch, Japanese, Russians and their descendants. Russian immigration is an interesting chapter in Brazilian history. Just five miles from Americana, a community was founded that was called Nova Odessa. During the Cold War, the Brazilians were spared by the absence of hostility between the two colonies so close, without realizing that the Americans were not Yankees and that the Russians were not Communists! Today, the Cemetery of the Field is the testimony of the most successful Southern colony founded after the Civil War. Some of those who immigrated to Brazil returned to the United States in the years that followed. Those who remained were assimilated by Brazilian society. Few of those living today in Americana and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste are able to link their origin to Southern immigrants. The descendants of those 400 or 500 families who have remained in Brazil are scattered throughout Brazil, and many live in large cities. Despite this, the Confederados managed to found and maintain the Immigration Museum in Santa Bárbara D'Oeste with the support of the municipal authorities, and the Fraternity remains very active, with a vibrant board and numerous associates. Today, the Confederates consider themselves Brazilians, and have adopted the local language and customs. the Confederados managed to found and maintain the Immigration Museum in Santa Bárbara D'Oeste with the support of the municipal authorities, and the Fraternity remains very active, with a vibrant board and numerous members. Today, the Confederates consider themselves Brazilians, and have adopted the local language and customs. the Confederados managed to found and maintain the Immigration Museum in Santa Bárbara D'Oeste with the support of the municipal authorities, and the Fraternity remains very active, with a vibrant board and numerous members. Today, the Confederates consider themselves Brazilians, and have adopted the local language and customs.
Meanwhile, no one can go to a Brotherhood meeting without having a strange feeling that something is missing ... the southern heart so deeply wounded on the battlefields of the Civil War.
And sclarecemos that errors committed during function of the notary escriturações Santarém during the records of births, several families of Confederate origin ( Wallace, Hennington, Rhome, Pitts, Riker, Vaughan, Jennings, etc ... ) had their wrongly placed names.
The VAUGHAN family , for example, took on some different forms of bookkeeping: Vaughon, Waughan and Wanghon.
Recently some descendants of the VAUGHAN familyand other families, with the help of lawyers and following the family trees, made the corrections due in the local notaries and began to write their names correctly.
Because the pronunciation of the name VAUGHAN is different from writing, some descendants have come to adopt the name "Von" , but only to facilitate the understanding of reading, without changing the form of registration.
CONFEDERATES WHO WENT TO BRAZIL.
An interesting letter comes from Mr. Grover G. Pyles, of Santa Barbara, Brazil, who writes of the Southern families who left the States after the surrender and went to Brazil in search of new homes, feeling that there could be no more happiness in the old homes under the changed conditions. Most of the Confederate veterans who went out are now dead, but Mr. Pyles mentions a few now living in that section—viz., Dr. Robert Norris, H. Clay Norris. Lieut. Joseph Whitaker, N. B. McAlpine, George \Vorthrop, John Weissinger, Joseph Minchin, J. Partridge, William McCann, \Villiam Pyles, Ezekiel B. Pyles. He says of these men that they have contributed greatly to the progress of agriculture in that country, and the municipality of Santa Barbara, in the State of Sao Paulo, is classified first in agriculture.
Comrade Pyles adds: “The Confederate veteran has been a power in peace, even as he helped to make the Confederate army one of the most invincible that ever faced the foe.”