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August Theodor 
Son of Jean Baptiste Adnet and Anne DeMestreau

BIRTH 1847 • New Orleans, Jefferson, Louisiana, USA

DEATH 1886 • Brazil

In 1868, his occupation was listed as "Collector" in New Orleans, Louisiana

Immigrated with wife and three children 1877

Became a Brazilian Citizen


Louis J.


Edward Frederick


James N.

Son of Frederick Hampton Anderson and Catherine Stokes Cole

Birth Date 23 Aug 1847  Franklin County, Alabama

Age at Death  29 - Death Date 27 Oct 1876

Burial Place Campo Santa Barbara d'Oeste Paulo, Brazil

Grave Marker - Inscription

"James N. Anderson
Son of Dr. F.H. and Mrs. C. S. Anderson
was born in Franklin Countv, Alabama August 23D, 1847. 

and departed this life at Santa Barbara Prov. Sao Paulo Brazil, October 27th, 1876"




BAIRD.   (Start a separate Baird Page )

John Calvin Baird, Rev.

BIRTH 27 AUG 1854 • York County, South Carolina, USA

DEATH 04 APR 1921 • Americana, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Married 20 Dec 1877 • Americana, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Mary Arabella Thacher

BIRTH 17 AUG 1861 • Ohio, USA

DEATH ABT 1921 • Brazil

All of their children were born in Brazil


Charles Calvin Baird

BIRTH 29 SEP 1878 • Brazil

DEATH 20 MAY 1897 • Ceara, Brazil


Elizabeth Thatcher Baird

BIRTH 29 OCT 1883 • São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

DEATH 12 FEB 1970 • California, USA


James Baird

BIRTH 07 AUG 1884 • Brazil



George Baird

BIRTH 25 SEP 1886 • Brazil

DEATH 05 NOV 1930 • Brazil


Edward Baird

BIRTH 1887-1894? • Brazil, South America

DEATH Brazil, South America


Halbert Baird


BIRTH 1887-1894 • Brazil, South America

DEATH Unknown


Price Baird


BIRTH 25 APR 1889 • Brazil

DEATH 02 FEB 1904 • Brazil


Anna "Annie" Baird

BIRTH ABT 1895 • Brazil, South America

DEATH Unknown


Margaret Baird

BIRTH ABT 1898 • Brazil, South America

DEATH Unknown


Marybelle B Baird

BIRTH 24 OCT 1900 • Americana, Sao Paulo, Brazil

DEATH AFTER 1965 • São Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Married  Eugene Field Horn I

BIRTH 04 SEP 1889 • Zollarsville, Washington County, Pennsylvania, USA

DEATH 01 SEP 1965 • Brazil


Fraternidade Descendência Americana


 On The 26/06/1870th, The Presbyterian Church was organized in Santa Bárbara D ' Oeste.

Today, we celebrate the 148 years of the 1th Presbyterian Church of the Southern Presbyterian Convention in Brazil and the 4th Presbyterian Church of Brazil.

Its founders were:
Rev. James Reynald Baird and his wife Elisa Baird;
Rev. William Curtis Emerson and wife Mary E. (Grady)
Frank Emerson and his wife;
William Patton Mcfadden, his wife Sarah Miller Mcfadden and his daughter Sarah Catherine Mcfadden;
Jane b. Grady and his daughters Sophia Grady, Martha H. Grady and " Mr. Jane b. Grady.


James Ranson Baird was the brother of the above John Calvin Baird

BIRTH 1857 • Yorkville,York County, South Carolina, USA 

DEATH MAR. 10, 1909 • Fredricsburg, Virginia, USA.

Lucille and Reynold had two children:


                                                              Geraldine Alice Baird

                                                              BIRTH 9-30-1887 • Atlanta, Georgia, USA

                                                              DEATH APRIL 12, 1961 • Newark, Deleware, USA


                                                              James Melvin Barnes

                                                              BIRTH 6-22-1886 • St. Michaels, Maryland, USA

                                                              DEATH 2-28-1944 • Newark, Deleware,USA


                                                              Johanna Baptista ???

                                                              BIRTH 1894 • Ceara, Brazil

                                                                 DEATH USA


Sarah married secondly:   

Antonio Theodoro de Oliveira*

BIRTH Sao Joao Da Boa Vista, São Paulo, Brasil

DEATH 1897 • São João da Boa Vista, São Paulo, Brasil


Bessie (Elizabeth) Ellis de Oliveira

BIRTH 1889 • Santa Barbara d'Oeste, Sao Paulo, Brazil

DEATH 1972 • Sao Paula, Brazil

Married: Ernest Sydney Pyles    (NEED TO CONNECT TO THE PYLES FAMILY)


Francis Marion

BIRTH 17 DEC 1844 • Copiah County, Mississippi

DEATH 23 SEP 1878 • Santa Bárbara d'Oeste,

Sao Paulo, Brazil

Married 8 Nov 1866 • Copiah Co., Mississippi

Sarah Rebecca Ellis

BIRTH 1849 • Copiah County, Mississippi

DEATH 1905 • Santa Barbara, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Bothe buried at Campo, Santa Bárbara d'Oeste,

Sao Paulo, Brazil

CSA Recod:

Name         Francis Marion Bankston

Side            Confederate

Regiment State/Origin     Mississippi

Regiment     Roberts' Company, Mississippi Artillery

(Seven Stars Artillery)

Rank In        Private

Rank Out     Private



Henry M Bankston

BIRTH 9-28-1867 • Santa Barbara SP (Brazil)

DEATH 9-7-1869 • Cemiterio do Campo, Santa Barbara, SP,



Nancy s. Bankston*


BIRTH 8-25-1869 • Sao Paulo, Brazil

DEATH 12-3-1875 • Cemiterio do Campo, Santa Barbara,

SB, Brazil


Lucille Bankston

BIRTH 11-15-1871 • Brazil

DEATH JAN. 19, 1940 • Bewark, Deleware, USA


Reynold Price Baird*, Son of James Ranson Baird and Eliza Caroline Price

Rev. James R. Baird, Presbyterian minister, moved his family to Brazil to start a church for the U.S. Southerners who moved down there after the Civil War.  Alice Baird Randolph lived there as a young girl.



From Alabama and was a scout



The Baxter family returned to the United States



Part of the McMullen group from Central Texas

Beasley, . None of the sources ever mention Beasley's first name, but George Barnsley lists him as a widower with two children, a boy and a girl."  SOURCE:  Griggs Thesis


Alexander Latimer

Rev. Alexander Latimer Blackford was an American Presbyterian missionary

in Brazil born on January 9, 1829, in Martins Ferry, Ohio.

He  graduated  from the Western Theological  Seminary in 1859 and decided

to  work in  Brazil  as  an  assistant of  Ashbel  Green  Simonton.   On  March

5, 1865, he  organised the  Presbyterian Church in São Paulo and became its

first pastor.

Blackford later organised the Presbyterian Church in Brotas in November

1865, the third  Presbyterian  church  in  Brazil.  With  3 organised congre-

gations,   Simonron  and  Chamberlain  organised  the  Presbytery  of   São

Paulo on December 16 of the same year.

From  1880   Latimer  worked  to  develop  Presbyterianism  in  Salvador,

Bahia. In 1888 he became the first moderator of the Presbyterian Church

of Brazil.

In 1890 on vacation in Atlanta, he became severely ill; he died on March 14.


Trecho da História da Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil no qual consta a participação de Alexander Latimer Blackford Archived A

The Life of Rev. Alexander L. Blackford

Per Agreste Presbyterian - March 12, 2018

Alexander L. Blackford was born on January 6, 1829 in Martins Ferry (Jefferson County), in eastern Ohio, and his Christian parents were very pious. It is reported that he was a direct descendant of an English reformer and martyr, Bishop Hugh Latimer (1485-1555), hence his middle name. He spent the first moments of his life in the rural area bordering his parents. After studying at Washington College, in the city of Washington, in southwest Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1856, he joined the Western Theological Seminary in Allegheny, on the outskirts of Pitts-burgh, in the same state, graduating in 1859. He was licensed on April 21, 1858 and ordained on April 20, 1859 by the Washington Presbytery. He presented himself to the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, based in New York, and shortly afterwards he met Ashbel G. Simonton, coming to marry his sister, Elizabeth (Lille). After a tumultuous and dangerous three-month sea voyage, the couple arrived in Brazil on July 25, 1860, almost a year after Simonton's arrival.

At first, Blackford cooperated with his brother-in-law in Rio de Janeiro. Eventually, he concluded that it would be advisable to move the mission headquarters to São Paulo. He came to visit this city in early September 1861, but could not find a home available.

In his absence, Simonton wrote to the New York Board suggesting the occupation of the colon, which was finally accepted. For some time, in 1861, Blackford worked as secretary of the American Legation in Rio de Janeiro. From November 1861 to January 1862, he made an extensive journey of reconnaissance and canvassing in the Province of Minas Gerais, visiting Juiz de Fora, Barbacena and São João Del Rei. With that, he stopped participating in the organization of the Church of Rio de Janeiro, occurred just before his return.

He replaced Simonton in the pastorate of the Church of Rio during his prolonged trip to the United States (March 1862 to July 1863). On May 15, 1863, he was elected pastor of that church, with Simonton and Francis Schneider being elected co-pastors. This act allowed the official registration of ministers with the government, in order to obtain authorization to perform the wedding of non-Catholics.

From the beginning, Blackford realized the strategic importance of São Paulo. On October 9, 1863, the couple took up residence in the capital of São Paulo, while Simonton remained in Rio de Janeiro. There they found two lay workers from the Fluminense Evangelical Church: the English merchant William Dreaton Pitt and the Portuguese canvasser Manuel Pereira da Cunha Bastos, from the American Bible Society. On the 18th, a Sunday, Blackford began his work, celebrating a service in English in the English reading room, at Rua da Constitution, currently Florêncio de Abreu. The services in English were held for a year at various points: at the home of William Pitt, at the office of Robert Sharp and Filhos, at the residence of Daniel W. Fox, the superintendent of the Santos-Jundiaí Railway, and at his own Shepherd, people. For a few months there were prayer meetings in the homes of some English workers, possibly railroad workers. In the same month of October 1863, Blackford went to Rio Claro, where Rev. Francis JC Schneider had been working for some time. On that trip, he had his first contact with the priest and future presbyterian minister José Manoel da Conceição, whom he would baptize a year later, on October 23, 1864, in Rio de Janeiro.

From the beginning, Blackford realized the strategic importance of São Paulo. On October 9, 1863, the couple took up residence in the capital of São Paulo, while Simonton remained in Rio de Janeiro. There they found two lay workers from the Fluminense Evangelical Church: the English merchant William Dreaton Pitt and the Portuguese canvasser Manuel Pereira da Cunha Bastos, from the American Bible Society. On the 18th, a Sunday, Blackford began his work, celebrating a service in English in the English reading room, at Rua da Constitution, currently Florêncio de Abreu. The services in English were held for a year at various points: at the home of William Pitt, at the office of Robert Sharp and Filhos, at the residence of Daniel W. Fox, the superintendent of the Santos-Jundiaí Railway, and at his own Shepherd, people. For a few months there were prayer meetings in the homes of some English workers, possibly railroad workers. In the same month of October 1863, Blackford went to Rio Claro, where Rev. Francis JC Schneider had been working for some time. On that trip, he had his first contact with the priest and future presbyterian minister José Manoel da Conceição, whom he would baptize a year later, on October 23, 1864, in Rio de Janeiro.

After this trip to Rio Claro, on November 29, 1863, services began in Portuguese, at William Pitt's residence, at Rua da Boa Vista, nº 5, and then at Rua da Constitution. Pitt was a great contributor to Blackford and came to be ordained to the ministry. Later, the services started to be celebrated in the own pastor's house, also in Rua da Constitution. The first celebration of the Lord's Supper took place on May 29, 1864 and the second on January 8, 1865. In December 1864, a house was rented at the beginning of Rua Nova de São José (now Líbero Badaró), next to the Largo de São Bento, where Rev. Blackford transferred his residence. There were Sunday morning and evening services, as well as Wednesdays, and Sunday school.  In February 1865, the missionary made his first visit to the village of Brotas, in the interior of the province, where he found the land prepared by the work of ex-priest Conceição. A few years later, on March 5, 1865, he organized the Presbyterian Church of São Paulo, with the profession of faith of the first six members: Antônio Bandeira Trajano, Miguel Gonçalves Torres, Manoel Fernandes Lopes Braga and José Maria Barbosa da Silva, his wife Ana Luíza Barbosa da Silva and her stepdaughter Olímpia Maria da Silva. On the same occasion, the Lord's Supper was celebrated for the third time, with eighteen participants participating.


At the end of the same year, Blackford spent about twenty days in Brotas, accompanied by José Manoel da Conceição, preaching and teaching in the village and in the farms. On November 13, 1865, with Conceição present, he organized in that locality the third Presbyterian community in Brazil. The act took place at the residence of Antônio Francisco de Gouvêa (1825-1902) and included the families of his brothers Joaquim José de Gouvêa and Severino José de Gouvêa, father of the future Rev. Herculano de Gouvêa. Antônio Francisco de Gouvêa for more than fifty years provided services to the community with his own preparation, effective in the treatment of snake bites; he died in São Paulo and was buried in the Protestant Cemetery. Brotas had been Conceição's last parish. Due to his influence, several people became interested in the gospel, which resulted in some missionary visits through-out that year: Blackford (February), Simonton and George W. Chamberlain (March and April), Blackford and Conceição (October and November) . On the date of the organization, Blackford received eleven people as a profession of faith and baptism, all from the Gouvêa family, and ministered the Supper for the first time. In the following month, on December 16, the existence of three churches allowed the creation of the Presbytery of Rio de Janeiro, with Blackford being elected its first moderator (and re-elected three times in a row). On the 17th, ex-priest Conceição was ordained to the ministry.

Blackford also visited other points in the interior of São Paulo, such as the Paraíba Valley, Sorocaba and Bragança. In this last one he preached three times in January 1866 and found a good welcome, but he was forbidden to continue by the city delegate. On May 25, he made another visit to Bragança, meeting Rev. Conceição, who had started his missionary trips in February. He preached for five days to auditoriums of one hundred to two hundred listeners (only in 1927 would the Presbyterian church be organized). On March 25, it received in São Paulo the second group of members, composed of eight people, including Portuguese Modesto Perestrello de Barros Carvalhosa and his cousin Pedro Perestrello da Câmara.

The following year, at the third meeting of the presbytery, he read the study “Some considerations on the obstacles to the progress of the gospel in Brazil” (16-07-1867).

In late 1867, with the unexpected death of the pioneer Simonton, Blackford returned to Rio de Janeiro, where he remained for almost ten years at the head of the mother church. In 1868, he went to the United States on his first vacation, having been appointed delegate of the presbytery before the General Assembly, to meet next May in New York. Rev. George Chamberlain replaced him in Rio de Janeiro. In the following years, the Presbyterian work expanded greatly in the old capital, having its own facilities. In December 1870, after the church had its last provisional seat for a few months (Campo de Santana, nº 67), the property of Travessa da Barreira, currently Rua Silva Jardim, was acquired next to Morro de Santo Antônio. On October 3, 1872, the Presbytery of Rio de Janeiro was incorporated into the government in order to definitively legalize the property. Finally, on March 29, 1874, the first Presbyterian temple in Brazil was inaugurated there. Over the years, Blackford organized other churches, such as the ones in Lorena (17-05-1868), Sorocaba (09/01/1869), Petrópolis (03/19-1872) and Campos (03/11/1877). He was editor of the newspaper Imprensa Evangélica and taught at ―Seminário Primitivo‖ (1867-1870), which formed the first national Presbyterian pastors: Antônio Bandeira Trajano, Miguel Gonçalves Torres, Modesto Perestrello Barros de Carvalhosa and Antônio Pedro de Cerqueira Leite.

Between 1877 and 1880, Rev. Blackford worked as an agent for the American Bible Society, traveling in much of the Brazilian territory. During the year 1877, he visited the provinces of Minas, São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina, covering almost five thousand kilometers, almost always on horseback. He preached in many cities and spread 2360 copies of the Scriptures. In 1878, he visited the northern provinces. On August 11 of that year, he participated in the organization of the Presbyterian Church in Recife, alongside Rev. John Rockwell Smith. He was in other provinces of the region, going to Pará. In 1879, he and some colleagues produced a “Brazilian version” of the New Testament, based on the original Greek (published by the Society for Religious and Moral Literature, based in the Church of Rio ). His assistants were Rev. Modesto Carvalhosa and Dr. José Manoel Garcia, professor at Colégio Pedro II. In the same year, on March 23, Blackford's wife, Elizabeth, died, being buried beside her brother in the Protestant Cemetery, in São Paulo. Two years later, on March 24, 1881, Blackford would later marry Nannie Thornwell Gaston, daughter of Dr. James McFadden Gaston (1824-1903), an American physician and elder who resided in Campinas and wrote the book Hunting a Home in Brazil (1867). Another daughter of Dr. Gaston, Keziah, married in 1884 to missionary John B. Kolb.

In 1880, Blackford reestablished his relations with the Junta de New York and for ten years devoted himself to missionary work in Bahia, residing in Salvador. He made countless propaganda trips on the coast and inland. He was the first missionary to preach in Sergipe and organized the Laranjeiras Church on December 28, 1884. That same year, Blackford was again elected moderator of the Presbytery of Rio de Janeiro. The following year, his alma mater, Washington College, awarded him the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity (DD). In 1888, he had the satisfaction of participating in the organization of the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Brazil, of which he was the first moderator. At that time, he was elected professor at the future Presbyterian Seminary, a position he did not exercise. One of the children of the Blackford couple, Joseph Simonton, In April 1890, Blackford went with his family (wife and three young children) to Atlanta, in the United States, where his father-in-law resided. He was on vacation, after many years of work in the field, and intended to attend the Presbyterian Church General Assembly meeting in Saratoga, New York. A few weeks after arriving (April 27), he suffered a serious illness that caused his death in just four days (May 14), being buried in the beautiful cemetery of Westview. In his last moments, he returned in thought to Brazil, to which he had dedicated thirty years of service. The minutes of the mission say that, just before he died, Rev. Blackford sang "hymns in the language of Brazilians, the people he loved dearly, praising his King and Father, whom he had served with firmness and constancy".

Blackford left several sermons in the Evangelical Pulpit; he wrote the treatises Jesus' Sympathy and Christian Baptism, as well as the Sketch of the Brazil Mission booklet, narrating the first seventeen years of Presbyterian work in Brazil.

It was the compiler of Sacred Canticles, a collection that for some time served as a hymnbook to Presbyterians. He translated into Portuguese some hymns, among them "Always from you, Lord" and "To heaven I go", included in the Psalms and Hymns. It preserved valuable historical data about the early years of Presbyterianism in Brazil (1860-1868). The Foreign Missionary published a large number of letters and reports sent by him about work in Brazil. Rev. Blackford had a strong temperament and could be very demanding of himself and his col-leagues. However, he was a deeply dedicated, sincere and hardworking missionary , leaving indelible marks on the history of national Presbyterianism.


Sarah A

Daughter of Christopher Columbus Blair and Sarah. BIRTH 8/19/1819 • South Carolina, USA

DEATH 1/29/1879 • Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Married Pleasant M Fenley prior to 1851 probably in Edgefield County, South Carolina.

BIRTH 1815 • South Carolina, USA

DEATH 12/3/1885 • Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazi, Buried at Campo,  Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil

Pleasant and family relocated from South carolina to Florida prior to 1860. In 1860 the Census report for Mariana, We find Pleasant, listed as a farmer with Sarah and five children.  


Pulaski Fenley

BIRTH 4 AUGUST 1847 • South Carolina, USA   DEATH 27 AUGUST 1890 • Brazil

Buried at Campo, Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil


Elizabeth B Fenley

BIRTH 25 APR 1849 • Edgefield, Edgefield, South Carolina, USA   DEATH 22 JULY 1910 • Brazil

Buried at Campo, Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil


John Alexander Carlton

BIRTH 28 NOV 1846 • Warsaw Sumpter County,Alabama   DEATH 9 NOVEMBER 1922 • Brazil

Elizabeth and John had five children:  1.  Charles D. Carlton, 2.  Albert A. Carlton, 3.  Eula V. Carlton, 4.  Annie S. Carlton and 5.  John E. Carlton (Children listed in no particular order).


Sarah L Fenley


Hulda V Fenley

BIRTH 5/6/1851 • Florida, USA. DEATH 9/14/1890 • Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil


John Henry Rowe  BIRTH 2/22/1846 • Gadsden County, Florida, USA,  DEATH 12/16/1922 • Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil


Charles Columbus  Fenley

BIRTH 10 JUNE 1859,  Mariana, Jackson County, Florida, USA DEATH 29 MAY 1935,  Fazenda Recanto, Villa Americana, Soa Paulo, Brazil,  Died of gangrene.  Buried at Campo, Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil.


Jennie Minchin   BIRTH 18 OCTOBER 1869,  DEATH 23 MAY 1957.  She was the daughter of John Long Minchin and Julia Antoinette Pyles.

Buried : Campo,  Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil.

Charles and Jennie would have five children


                                                         Hiram Minchin Fenley

                                                         BIRTH 26 MAR 1892 • Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo, Brazil,   DEATH 4 FEB 1933


                                                         Alexander Christovam Fenley

                                                         BIRTH 18 JANUARY 1896 • Brasil,   DEATH 7 APRIL 1951


                                                          Mary Lee Ferguson, daughter of Robert Edward Lee Ferguson and Mary Elizabeth                                                                    Cullen

                                                          BIRTH 18 AUG 1900 • Brazil,   DEATH 17 OCT 1958 • São Paulo, Brazil

                                                          Alexander and Mary would have three children: 1.  Josepg Edison Fenley - died young,                                                            2. Hiram Lee Fendley   3.  Paulo Alendre Fenley


                                                         Joseph Fenley

                                                         BIRTH 1901 • Brazil,   DEATH Unknown


                                                         Edward Fenley   BIRTH 1903 • Brazil,   DEATH Unknown


                                                         Julie Fenley  BIRTH 1906 • Brazil   DEATH Unknown



Albert Arthur

BIRTH 12 FEB 1832 • Alabama, USA                                                                                                                                                 DEATH 29 FEB 1920 • Paris, Lamar, Texas, USA

From: Find A Grave

Albert Arthur BLOXOM was first married to Amanda Minerva LEWIS. After she died, he married Martha Jane HALL HART HEMBREE on May 12, 1895 in DeSoto Parish, Louisiana. There were no known children of this second union. Albert died of pneumonia.

Jasper N. 

BIRTH 23 OCT 1830 • Lowndes County, AL

DEATH 02 MAY 1906 • Corsicana, Navarro, Texas, USA

He was married twice, the first time to Mary Elizabeth Lee on January 7, 1856 in Lowndes County, Alabama 

BIRTH 08 AUG 1839 • Lowndes County, AL

DEATH 08 AUG 1898 • Corsicana, Navarro, Texas, USA

Jasper and Mary would have 11 children with one, Thomas Ely Bloxon, being born in Brazil in 1868.  By 1872, The family returned to the USA and and settled near Corsicana, in Navarro County, Texas where his last three children were born.  After the death of Mary in 1898, Jasper married again to Caroline Shields on  February 23, 1900 in Navarro County.

Jasper Bloxom and family  By Ronnie Pittman

After the U.S. Civil War the Emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II, wishing to promote the cultivation of cotton, invited growers from the American South to immigrate to his country. Thousands did so, including my great-great grandfather, Jasper Newton Bloxom, the white-bearded patriarch in the center of this photo. Many of these "Confederados" eventually returned to the U.S., again including my gg-grandfather. Although Jasper and his family had emigrated from Alabama, when they returned to the U.S. in 1872, they settled in Texas, near Corsicana, where this photo must've been taken, sometime around 1890.

Pictured to Jasper's right is his wife, Mary Elizabeth (Lee) Bloxom; behind him in the white shirt (without jacket) is my great-grandfather, Leonard Washington "Wash" Bloxom, holding possibly my grandmother.

Note: this story is not one of my "little-known fact" fables. Confederado descendants survive to this day in Brazil. In 1972 Jimmy and Rosalyn Carter visited the grave of her great-uncle in Americana, Brazil.

Jasper N. Bloxom (First_Last)
Regiment Name 24 Battalion Mississippi Cavalry.
Side Confederate
Company A
Soldier's Rank_In Private
Soldier's Rank_Out Private
Alternate Name
Film Number M232 roll 4

From "The Times Argus" (Selma, Alabama)20 - Oct 1869 - Page 1

     "Msessrs, J. N. and A. Bloxom, from Mississippi, came to Brazil in March, 1867.  These gentlemen (brothers) bought 400 acres of land jointly, for which the paid $2,075.  They have two good dwelling houses, fine water power, 6 hea of cattle and 26 hogs in the purchase.  They have raised two good crops of cotton, corn and rice.  Their lands are entirely Terra branca, but of the very best quality of that soil.  From 22 acres of cotton, the present season, they have made 18 bales.  They had about the same number of acres in corn."


 Boyd, whose first name has not been found, was married and had one child, a girl. 

SOURCE:  Griggs Thesis


Maj. Alexander

John "Dad" McMains, a Scotsman who had lived and worked in the California gold fields in 1849, also elected to leave the McMullen group at Rio de Janeiro. Always a loner, McMains wasted neither words nor money. On board ship from New York, George Barnsley, Major Alexander Braxton, and others often solicited McMains' advise, which he usually gave in terse, yet genial phrases. McMains and Braxton went to the Rio Docey, where they formed a partnership for the purpose of exporting fine furniture woods to Rio. The venture proved successful but ended when Braxton failed to return from a trip to the capital where he had sold a quantity of hardwood for a sum of 10 contos. Braxton had boarded a coastal steamer to return to the Rio Doce, but he never arrived. Most people assume that he was robbed and murdered. Later McMains traveled alone to Buenos Aires, Argentina, then Paraguay, before trekking across the wilds of Matto Groso province to Rio de Janeiro. The trip through the wilderness with no roads took six months. Disappointed at not finding a bonanza mining claim, McMains eventually returned to Texas.

SOURCE:  The Elusive Eden  Page 88


D. W.

Return to Alabama – Dissatisfied Emigrants to Brazil

August 10, 1867

There arrived at the Central Hotel last night a party of ladies and gentlemen who left Brazil last month, thoroughly, totally, heartily disgusted with their new homes among the hybrid masses in the overrated, well-flattered country of Brazil.  The party is composed entirely of Alabamians, among whom are MESSRS. JOHM M. HARRIS, W. J. DeBERRY, G. E. JONES, THOMAS McCANTS, T. A. McELROY, JOHN STANFIELD, D. W. BRAZIELL, and eighteen other gentlemen and their wives and children. They give affecting and pitiful accounts of the sufferings of many hundreds of deluded Southerners who were lured away from their friends by the tempting offers of the Brazilian Government, and the tales of wild and impulsive American adventurers.


They represent that there is no regularly organized Government in Brazil–there is no society–but little cultivation among the inhabitants–no laudable ambition–no ways of making money–the people scarcely know the meaning of the word “kindness”– the American citizens live about in huts, uncared for–there is general dissatisfaction among the emigrants, and the whole Brazil representation is a humbug and a farce. The American Consul is in receipt of numerous and constant applications from helpless American citizens to assist them in getting back to their true, rightful country. CAPT. JACK PHELAN, who is so well known and admired in Montgomery, has, we learn, left with a large number of other young men, to make California their home.  The advice of the gentlemen with whom we conversed is to dissipate the idea that Alabama is not still a great country – to cause dreaming over the unhappy past–say nothing that will assist to keep up political troubles, stay at home, but work, work, work, and Alabama will yet be, what she ought to be, and can be, a great and glorious country.

The long-deferred abolition of slavery in Brazil is to be hastened. A recent law releases all slaves after two years, and they are to receive wages during this period.  Brazil is the last country laying claim to civilization that still maintains slavery.  It is not sixty years since slavery was abolished in the British colonies, and less than half that time since this country rid itself of the evil.


New York Times, Aug. 15, 1867

Reprinted in the The South Alabamian, Jackson, Alabama, October 1, 1887




















W. P.

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Tandy Key Randolph and Alice Catherine B
Tandy Key Randolph and his wife Catherine Alice Baird Randolph. They raised a large family in Athens, Ga. One of their teenage sons drowned in the Oconee River near Athens. Photo courtesy of Larry Baird.
John Calvin Baird
Reynold Price Baird
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William Henry


William Henry Capps was born in 1841, or 1845 ?, being the son of William

Calhoum Capps and Mary Matilda Capps. It is said that he came to Brazil

- from the the state of.Alabama. We don't know when he arrived. He married,

in Santa Barbara, SP, Anne Ellis, daughter of Warren Montgomery Ellis and

Mary Matilda (Strong) Ellis, probably shortly after August 1869. William and

Anne would have 12 or 13 children. Of these, the name of 8 can be found in the

registration of W. H. Capps, which took place on June 6, 1890. Anne must have

died shortly before April 30, .1890, because, in the list of voters in Santa Barbara 

in the 49th quarter of the city the name of Henry Capps _ appears as a viJvo,

for about 45 years, therefore not coinciding with that of registration of death.

His second marriage, W. H. Capps married on April 18,.1892, with Agnes Mariana

Hawthorne, according to marriage registration, in Santa Barbara. On January 29,

1894 Mirian Constance Capps was born, and died on August 11, 1983 buried in the

field of Campo. '- Agnes (or Ignes?) Mariana (Hawthorne) Capps must have died

between 1894 and 1900, since in W. H. Capps's death record and menci .onao_c?

mo '' widow in first anger and second nuptials ''. He was buried in the - Cem1ter10

do Campo. The inscription of his tomb, like that of Anne, has his month, but not

the dates. According to the W. H. Capps death record, we have the name and age

of the following children: Henry Spencer, 32; Edwin and Ella, 25; Allie, 23;

Clarence, 21; Roland, 18; Robert, 12 (his age should be 15). In SD, the names of

Arthur, George, Frederick, Charles Monroe and Beulah are also mentioned.


In  August 1883, and April 1894, W.H. Capps acquired ownership activities

in the area of ​​Santa Barbara, SP, as evidenced by documents found in Cartorio.

In 1892, his name appears in the list of electoral names in Santa Barbara, SP. In

1893, he paid the City Hall tax on the mill (sugar? Brandy?). that was yours and on the 1899 voters' list, there is a note 1: 1 along the. This must be Correct Do1s, as it appears in the Obito Registry.


** The name of WH Capps was with others on the commission appointed by PIB / SB, in order to prepare and sign a document that would be valid for the registration of WB Bagby and then EH Soper, as pastors, in accordance with that established by Imperial Decrees. , from 1861 and 1863.


We try to get other information about w.H. Capps, through
two of his descendants, however, our efforts were unsuccessful. Those who are here have found themselves in the docs:! 111 of arorio and the Arch.! _ Municipal voor of Santa Barbara d Oeste, in addition to references in the book Sol Given Descansa.



William Henry Capps' name appears almost always written as HENRY CAPPS.


 SOURCE:  Loosely translated and paraphrased from the original Portuguese manuscript.


Uma  Contribuiao  para  a  Hist6ria dos Prim6rdios do Trabalho Batista no Brasil    1985

Betty  Antunes  de Oliveira



Richard C.

Richard G. Carlton served with the 21st Battalion, Georgia Cavalry, Co. B and later in Co. E. When the 7th Regiment, Georgia Cavalry was organized, he was assigned to Company F of the 7th.

Pvt. Carlton, returning home after the war, found they had lost everything during the Sherman criminal burnings. He and his wife Cynthia moved to Brazil shortly after the war when they found that the emperor of Brazil was offering free land for establishing agriculture. After moving to Brazil, Richard and Cynthia had a daughter, Betty, who married Eugene Virgil Seawright, son of Ebenezer W. Seawright, a manufacturer of farm equipment.

Information provided by Hilton Seawright, gg-grandson of Richard Carlton.


The above mentioned "Betty" was Anna Elizabeth Carlton



Joseph Jackson

The inclusion of the names of Joseph Jackson Cherry and his wife Elisa Cherry in the list of members of PIB / SB comes from the reference made in a letter written by Dr. Bagby FMB, on June 30, 1881. He says that they lived in Botucatu , SP, and that it was a great effort to come to the sessions in SB, on a trip of 100 miles.

J. J. Cherry and his wife are said to have been from Texas. We don't know when they arrived in Brazil, whether they stayed here, or when they would have returned to the USA. It seems to us that the couple had two children.

D. Cherry going from Rio de Janeiro to New York, leaving on 03.December 1, 1885. (In MPRJ p. 330).

According to documents  found in the Cartorio de Notas, in Santa Barbara, SP, the couple must have arrived there at the end of 1874 or beginning of 1875. From the date of 1May 1, 1875, onwards, they  appearon the registration of purchase and sale of property, demand , mortgage, friendly land division, exchange of ownership and finally confirmation that JJ Cherry will acquire a property in Botucatu, next to that of Robert Meriwether. This must have them there throughout the year 1877.

A search  at Cartorio in Botucatu, was unable to locate his name in the Distribution sector. Also,  not found was a record of his Obituary or his wife. We were at the local cemetery, in the idea of ​​having some data recorded in lapidary, but, - we found nothing. So, this little information is recorded here about the Cherry couple.

 SOURCE:  Loosely translated and paraphrased from the original Portuguese manuscript.


Uma  Contribuiao  para  a  Hist6ria dos Prim6rdios do Trabalho Batista no Brasil    1985

Betty  Antunes  de Oliveira



Dr. John Hancock

BIRTH19 Apr 1799

Caswell County, North Carolina, USA

DEATH8 Jul 1888 (aged 89)



Cemitério dos Americanos

Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, Município de Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil


Dr. John Hancock Crisp, was born 4-14-1799 in Caswell Co., NC and died 7-8-1888 near Santa Barbara, Brazil, South America.  He is buried in Campo Cemetery where many other Confederate Veterans and their descendants are buried. About 80 families relocated to South America after the Civil War was over.  Dr. John married 1st in 1828 in Maury Co., TN, Mary "Polly" Jones, daughter of Thomas H. Jones and Catharine McKelroy "Katy" Shaw, who were also early settlers of Gibson Co. By Mary he had two children, Dr. J. J. Crisp and Elizabeth Jones "Lizzie" Crisp, who married Shelton Oliver.  Dr. John married 2nd in Caswell Co., NC, Mary Kennon "Polly" Smith, and had 5 children by her: Samuel Crisp, Alexander Smith "Aleck" Crisp, Richard C. "Dick" Crisp, Mary Kennon "Kinnie" Crisp, and Jane Paschal "Jennie" Crisp. Dr. John moved to Trenton from Maury Co., TN shortly after he married.  He was the first doctor to practice in Trenton, building his home where the Post Office parking lot is now.



Elizabeth Jones "Lizzie" Crisp


BIRTH 19 APR 1830 • Summerville, Fayette Co., TN

DEATH 12 JUN 1902 • Searcy, White Co., AR


Shelton Alexander Oliver


BIRTH 1825 • Hernando, Desoto Co., MS

DEATH 13 AUG 1863 • Hernando, Desoto Co., MS

They had four children:


John Chrisp Oliver


BIRTH 14 MAR 1851 • Hernando, Desoto Co., MS

DEATH 18 APR 1914 • Gainesville, Cooke Co., TX

Married Florence Fox


Lula Oliver


BIRTH 28 FEB 1856 • MS

DEATH 14 MAR 1935


William Hartwell Dickason


BIRTH 1849

DEATH 1927


Shelton Oliver


BIRTH 1860 • TX

DEATH Unknown


Mai Mildred Oliver


BIRTH 01 JUN 1864 • TX

DEATH 31 AUG 1931


William Pitt Martin


BIRTH 11 MAY 1848 • Columbia, TN

DEATH 12 JUN 1911 • Weatherford, TX

Richard C.

From Find A Grave

Richard C. Crisp

BIRTH 1844 • Lamar Co., MS

DEATH ABT 1905 • Santa Barbara, Sao Paulo, Brazil

1844 - ~1905
8th Texas Cavalry Regiment

Born Lamar, MS in 1844.
Resided in Columbus, Colorado County, .
Mustered into Company B in Austin County,

Texas on May 6, 1862.
Present in April 1863.
Moved to Brazil in 1867, settling there with his

Died about 1905.



Two Brothers served in Terry's Rangers as well, Samuel Crisp and Alexander Crisp. Dr. John Hancock Crisp was involved in a lawsuit brought by the Freedman's Bureau in Colorado Co., TX and essentially the Bureau Agent and two of his northern friends ended up with all of Dr. Crisp's material wealth leavig him broke. There are letters written by Dr. Crisp from South America where he refers to his dissatisfaction with the "Yankee Rule" after the War. In 1860, Dr. Crisp had 164 slaves named in papers.

Married undetermined.  Had one son Jorge Crisp.

Dr. James Jones Crisp

BIRTH 16 JUL 1832 • Trenton, Gibson Co., TN

DEATH 25 APR 1877 • Gibson Co., TN


Josephine Adelaide Jones

BIRTH 30 AUG 1843 • Memphis, Shelby Co., TN

DEATH 24 SEP 1937 • TN

Dr. James Jones Crisp was born 7-16-1832 in Trenton, TN and died 4-25-1877 in

Brazil,  Gibson  Co., TN.,  the son of Dr. John  Hancock  Crisp  and  Mary  Jones. 

He served as a  Confederate  doctor in a hospital in  Dallas, TX.  James married

5-8-1867  in Gibson Co., TN,  Josephine  Adalaide  "Addie"  Jones,  daughter  of

Thomas Jones and Mary Blanton Kimbell.  He practiced in Brazil and died as a

result of pneumonia.



Mary Elizabeth Crisp

BIRTH 1869

DEATH 1896 • Gibson Co., TN


Shelton Alexander Crisp

BIRTH 16 JUL 1870 • Gibson Co., TN

DEATH 30 NOV 1965 • Gibson Co., TN


Maude Skinner, daughter of Tisnsley Isaih Skinner and Mattie Josephine Richardson

BIRTH 1872 • Gibson Co., TN

DEATH 29 NOV 1949 • Gibson County, TN

They had at least one child:

Joe Shelton Crisp


John Thomas Crisp Sr.



DEATH 1941 • Gibson Co., TN


Elizabeth Glass Lassiter


BIRTH 1872

DEATH 1931 • Gibson Co., TN

They had at least one child  John Thomas Crisp Jr.

John Thomas Crisp Sr. would marry a second time to:

Lury Emma Enochs


Catherine "Katie" Crisp


BIRTH 19 JUN 1875 • Gibson Co., TN

DEATH 06 DEC 1943 • Gibson Co., TN


Albert Sidney Taylor Sr.


BIRTH 03 DEC 1874

DEATH 20 MAY 1955

They had at least two sons:

Albert Sidney Taylor Jr. and Joseph William Taylor


Annie Crisp


BIRTH 24 NOV 1876

DEATH 24 OCT 1885 • Gibson Co., TN



David Reddock 


By Robert, W. Worley

David Reddock Coulter was the second son of John M. Coulter and Nancy Reddock Coulter. He was born on Sept: 4, 1810 and came to Arkansas in' 1836 with his parents and, brothers. He married Elizabeth Yoakum of Kentucky about 1831. She was a cousin of Sarah Yoakum, the wife of his brother, Peter Coulter .. Elizabeth was born Oct. 11,1815. They were married Aug. 20, 1835.

Elizabeth Coulter died Sept. 14, 1864 and was buried in Union County. David It. Coulter died Aug. 10, 1897 and was buried at Mt. Carmel, near Wolf City, Texas., Four generations of this family are buried there. Union County land records indicate David R. Coulter had extensive land holdings. After the Civil War and his wife’s, death, he sold his plantation and went to South America. Along with his son, George D. Coulter, he spent about a year in Brazil near the city of Sao, Paulo. Upon his return to the states he spent a few years in New Orleans as a cotton broker and later purchased 3,000 acres of land in Hunt Co., Texas and remained there until his death. At the Union County home-site of .the Coulter family,  all that remains is the well "a few rotted timbers, three tremendous magnolia trees, several crepe myrtle trees and the six graves",  listed below. They are located in Township 16 South, Range 17: West" Section 33 or 34, Union County, Arkansas. The family cemetery is about three fourths mile off the Mt. Holly road in the vicinity of the Confederate marker recently installed. It is quite overgrown.

(1) 'John A. TOOKE ,(Masonic Emblem) ,    

(2) , Grave" stone, etc. all moved. .

(3) Grave, stone, etc., all moved.

(4) Elizabeth E., wife of D. R. COULTER Born in Washington Co., Ky.

(5) , John M. COULTER, born in Union Co., Ark.

(6) Daniel A. COULTER, born Washington Co. ,Ky.

(7) , Louis G. COULTER, son of D.R. & E.

(8) James R.. COULTER, son of D. R. & E. , 

The 1850 census records for Union Co., Ark. indicate the following about the David R. Coulter family:

Coulter, David R.    40          Georgia

Elizabeth                    35          Kentucky

Daniel                          12          Kentucky

George .                       10         Arkansas

Paul .                              8          Arkansas

 Mary ,                           6           Arkansas

John                              4           Arkansas

Garrett                          1           Arkansas

Occupation , Planter

CHILDREN of David R. Coulter and  Elizabeth Yoakum


Daniel A. Coulter

BIRTH MAY 6, 1838 • Washington Co., Kentucky - DEATH NOVEMBER 10, 1857 • Union Co., Arkansas

Died at age 19, no known issue


George Dekalb Coulter

BIRTH 25 DEC 1839 • Sevier Co, Arkansas - DEATH 1 APR 1881 • Brazil

Married on April 7, 1872 in Campinas, Sao Paulo , Brazil to Pamela Ann Demaret, BIRTH 22 JUN 1848 • Louisiana, USA - DEATH 19 JUL 1878 • Santa Bárbara, Minas Gerais, Brazil,  the daughter of Martin Felix Demaret II and Pamela Zelde Foster, Confederado settlers of Santa Barbara.  They ae both buried at the Campo Cemetery in Santa Barbara.

George and Pamela would have at least two children:

           1.  Demaret Paul Coulter,  BIRTH 28 FEB 1873 • Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, DEATH 29 DEC 1939 • Lee,                                  Arkansas.  He returned to the USA in 1889 and married on May 28, 1905 in Carter County, Oklahoma, a                              cousin, Docia D. Coulter, the daughter of George Washington Coulter and Amanda Elnora "Nellie" Mitchell .                    They would have at least one child - Permalor Lenora Coulter, born 1906 in Oklahoma.


           2.  George Demaret Coulter of which nothing is known.         


Paul James Coulter

BIRTH 14 SEPTEMBER 1842 • Arkansas - DEATH 12 JUNE 1902 • Mt Carmel, Texas, USA.  In   1866 Paul would marry Isadora Brunetta Kensworthy, BIRTH 19 JANUARY 1847 • Hempstead County, Arkansas, DEATH 14 JUNE 1928 • Wolfe City, Hunt County, Texas, the daughter of Ezekial Kensworthy and Mary jane Russey


Paul and Isadora would have at least five children:

           1.  Elizabeth Coulter

           2.  David Reddock Coulter

           3.  Mary Elizabeth coulter

           4.  Alice Burton Coulter

           5.  George Daniel Coulter


Mary Coulter

BIRTH AUGUST 20, 1843 • Union Co., Arkansas - 

DEATH JULY 7, 1897 • Malvern,Hot Spring Co.,Arkansas 

Married September 1965 to Henry Alexander Butler  - 

BIRTH SEPTEMBER 18, 1836 • Granville Co., North Carolina

DEATH JUNE 29, 1907 • Malvern, Hot Springs Co., Arkansas

Mary Elizabeth and Henry would have at least 5 children:

           1.  David Coulter Butler,

           2.  Mary Elizabeth Butler,

           3.  Mattie L. Butler,

           4.  George Henry Butler

           5. Nancy M. Butler                                   Henry and Mary E                                                                  Mary E. Coulter Butler                                                                                                 Butler          


John M. Coulter

BIRTH JUNE 27, 1845 • Union County, Arkansas, - DEATH SEPTEMBER 14, 1864 • Union County, Arkansas

Died young at 19.  No issue. 


James Coulter

BIRTH FEBRUARY 25, 1847 • Union Co., Arkansas - DEATH MARCH 30, 1847 • Union Co., Arkansas

Died as infant.


Louis Garrett Coulter

BIRTH JULY 31, 1849 • Union Co., Arkansas - DEATH MARCH 8, 1853 • Union Co., Arkansas

Died young at 4 years old.

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In the photo Dr. Richard C. Crisp, was born February 19, 1844, in the city of Colorado, TEXAS, UNITED STATES "Dick" Crisp was a Civil War veteran, having enlisted in the 8th Texas Cavalry Regiment, (1861–1865), also known as Terry's Texas Rangers. He was the son of John Hancock Crisp and Mary Smith. He was married to Damiana Crisp with whom he had children: Alberto, Júlia, Ernesto, Ernesta, Ricarda, Alexandre, Jorge, Carlota, Angélica and Alfredo. He died on January 3, 1905 in the city of Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil and is buried in the Cemitério do Campo





Rev. Robert Lewis

Reverend Dr. Robert Louis Dabney of Virginia

Robert Louis Dabney was one of the most influential Presbyterian theologians of this day and an admirer of John C. Calhoun. He was an archetype of the 19th century liberal, a God-fearing man, an ardent  advocate of small government and self rule, and a believer in a market and a polity defined by individual liberty. He was also a descendant of Cornelius Dabney of Virginia and a cousin of George Rockingham Gilmer, in short, a scan of the Virginia and Broad River families. Dabney harbored a profound and deeply antagonistic distrust of Yankees in the antebellum era and beyond. A major during the Civil War, he served as General Stonewall Jackson’s Chief of Staff. Another Broad River scion and possible kinsman, Major Robert Meriwether, was also attached to Jackson's outfit and later was a South Carolina advance aged to Brazil. The two men were friends and stayed in contact for many years after the latter’s permanent removal to São Paulo province. Though Dabney seriously considered leaving the United States after the war, he did not. Instead he moved to Austin, Texas, in the late 1800s and with Reverend Richmond Kelly Smoot laid the groundwork for founding the Austin School of Theology, (later the Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary,) Dabney’ ruminations on immigrating are revealing.


In August 1865, he wrote to his brother, expressing his interest to go to Brazil, although he also laid out possibilities for immigration to other places. One scenario envisioned a quiet and cultured lifestyle,” if only a few are going, they are to go to some of the quieter towns of Holland, Protestant Germany, or Protestant Switzerland, such as Arnheim, Frankfort, Berne.” These locations would offer good government and climate, cultivated society, religious liberty, and a prevalence of Protestants, “living in decent moderation astonishingly  cheap and educational needs, with access to noble libraries, Galleries, etc., for a song.”. A second option was for locations in the Americas appropriate for a larger numbers of migrants,” If so many Confederates are going, that they will find their own community and a prevalent public opinion, ,so as to absorb socially, instead of being absorbed, then they ought to go to a new and wide country, offering feritle cheap lands, and a great deal of it.....they must have a leader, a Moses, to bargain for Homesteads, and chartered rights to religious liberty.....I have suggested General Breckenridge, and the region of Argentina's La Plata in the southern temperate zone.”


Dabney also considered Mexico, (An effort led by Matthew Fontaine Maury),, but by late January 1866, he had dismissed it.” I have no doubt at all, of the physical advantages of parts of Mexico recommended by General Price. But it is too near the Yankees, and unless Maximilian is to be backed up beyond a per adventure, by the strong powers, I shall have nothing to do with it.....unless they, the Yankees, are kept off of Mexico, by the European powers, they will be filibustering all over it before ten years.


In contrast, “the La Plata country deserves to be looked into. It is out of the Yankees beat.” But Dabney’s personal situation complicated matters, especially his mothers illness. Financially, Daphne was struggling but was not in dire straits. He was teaching at Union Theological Seminary in Hampden-Sydney, Virginia, and thanks to “aid extended by northern copperheads to the treasury of the seminary,” he had “almost a living salary” but otherwise was contending with his shattered financial barque.”. He worried about his family if something were to happen to him, his eldest son was only ten.


Dabney was also writing a biography of Stonewall Jackson that he believed could land him in jail if published. It was “undoubtedly contraband, with its outspoken, truthful narration of Yankee crimes, and assertion of free principles, and with its atmosphere and coloring of independent, indignant feeling.”. He considered publishing it in Halifax or London then smuggling it into the country, “To let it fate be the sign and test, whether I are to live in the U.S”. In fact, the book was published in New York in 1866 as Life and Campaign of Lieutenant General Thomas J Jackson.


Dabney concluded that “these things point this way, that whatever other Confederates stay, I must emmigrate.” But the viability and continuation of the Southern Presbyterian Church that was formed in 1861 gave him pause. Dabney believed that a secession word “about to take place in the Northern church,”  which he regarded as apostate, if so, “the churches in the Confederacy are the last sound rallying point for conservative Christianity.”  The recent demise of Reverend James Henley Thornwelll, a leading southern theologian, put Daphne in an even greater quandary. Dabney was then “looked to as the acknowledge leader of theological education in the south, would be disastrous to be robbed of my labors in the lecture room, of my pen, and of my counsels.”Thornwell  was such a vocal Calhounite that he was known as the “Calhoun of the church.”


But Dabney wondered if his leadership was reason enough to overlook other considerations. “Of what avail is the pen, logic, science, and instruction, where there is no liberty of speech, and all these are chained. I should go hence, for the very purpose of wielding these for the truth. Continuing in the same vein, this descendent of Virginia Huguenots took his inspiration from that cultural legacy, “Confederate Christianity..... is the only salt of the land. What if this salt should lose it savour through the corrupting influence of despotism?  It is to my mind an open question, whether this salt can be saved for the good of mankind in any other way, then that in which the influence of the Huguenots was saved by emigration.


In early 1866, Dabney’s resolve to migrate was even firmer, and he anticipated many others would do likewise.” I have never for one moment been deluded into the dream that the country was not irreparably ruined.  I see every development making that fact more patent to other people’s eyes, (not to my own,) and watch, without any surprise, the steady and extensive leavening of the mind of our people, with the desire for emigration. Be assured, we shall have company enough, and that of the best: the folly and wickedness of the Yankees assure that.”


An important theme emerges in Dabney’ss writings: the quality of one's life was not so much a function of place as of the company of like society. Dabney attributed little value to where you lived. Location simply provided a setting for rte morel important pursuit of a particular lifestyle: “ All that is needed is proper selection of a refuge, and respectable headslips, to make the movement so general, as to aggregate in our new home, all that is desirable of the Confederacy..... could these hopes be realized, we should have nothing to regret, after the local ties were once surrendered, and the actual labours of removal gotten through: but might find ourselves in a better situation than we ever were before, even during our good days. Our chinquapin region of Virginia was a hard country at best: and nothing but a set of social circumstances acceptable to our feelings and habits made it a tolerable home. Now that these are gone, it seems to me, the only sensible view to take of it is..... to get away as soon as possible”.


Dabney envisioned large numbers of migrants, “My faith is still firm, and that when the Confederate colonies are started properly, they will speedily be, large enough to demand a large country, and to make an unsettled government settled. A hiatus in the brother’s correspondence between early 1866 and 1872  prevents our knowing exactly why Dabney ultimately rejected emigration. In 1872, he was in contact with Rev. Edward E. Lane one of two Southern Presbyterian missionaries who had taken up posts in Campinas, Sao Paulo, as of 1869. The other missionary was Rev. George Nash Morton of Charlotte Courthouse, Virginia, who had scouted out Brazil in 1868. Dabneyy had supported a motion at the denomination’s 1866 general assembly to send missionaries to Brazil, but the proposal was regarded as “premature” and was defeated.


Morton and Lane were not the first Presbyterian clergy from the United States to go to Brazil. James Cooley Fletcher arrived in Rio in 1851 as “a chaplain missionary of the American and foreign Christian union, and of the American Seamens Friend Society.”. Fletcher has been educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, Brown university, and Princeton Theological Seminary. Although not technically a missionary, he saw himself as such in the years following Herndon and Gibbon’s exploration of the Amazon, which had led to tense relations between the Brazilian and U.S. governments. (Brazil feared the undertaking represented first step toward American domination of the region.)  Fletcher's goal was to convert Brazil to Protestantism. Between the mid-1850s and early 1860s, he traveled extensively as an agent of the American Sunday school union distributing Bibles. He also spent time ingratiating himself with leading Brazilian liberals in pursuit of his dream. This aspect of his activities knitted together the Brazilian and U.S .networks that facilitated southern immigration.


The first formal U.S. Presbyterian representative in Brazil was Reverend Ashbel Green Simonton of the Presbyterian Church in the USA, one of the two main northern branches. Named for Ashbel Green, a theologian, Chapman to Congress, and President of Princeton University, Ashbel Green Simonton arrived in Rio in 1859 and rented space above the warehouse occupied by Horace Many Lane., a young merchant from Maine, who became his traveling companion. Lane imported U.S. plows and kerosene, was a Freemason, and later was a founder and director of the Presbyterian affiliated McKenzie College in South Paulo. Judith McKenzie Jones cautioned her readers not to confuse Horace Manley Lane with the Horace Lane who was an associate of Dr. John H Blue. Other scholars assume they are one and the same for some compelling reasons. Horace Manley Lane returned to the United States after spending 1859-63 in Brazil, received a medical degree, and practice in a “small town” in Blue’s home state of Missouri. Two other Presbyterian missionaries arrived in Brazil soon after Simonton, his brother-in-law Reverend Alexander Latimer Blackford and Reverend George W Chamberlain.


Two Southern Presbyterian clergyman were in São Paulo before Morton and Lane’s 1869 arrival, Reverend James H Baird, of South Carolina, and Reverend William Curtis Emerson, a resident of Meridian, Mississippi. Emerson, who was born in the Broad River community of Abbeville, South Carolina, resided in Sumter county, Alabama, in 1845 at the time of his first marriage. He was also a planter and a college president. While in Mississippi in the 1850s, he came to know Ashbel Green Simonton and his brother James S. Simonton. Ashbel and James both graduated Princeton and 8052, then spent eighteen months in the south, where Ashbel taught at a boys academy in Starkville, Mississippi. Emerson and others encouraged Ashbel to choose the ministry as his profession, although he briefly studied law.  By 1855, though, he was immersed in theology at Princeton Seminary. As an 1857, his sights were set on missionary work, and he began learning Portuguese before departing for Brazil in 1859.


Reverend Blackford, a northerner, encouragement the southern chirch to send missionaries to Brazil. Both nations adopted the attitude that their work was to be defined by all of Brazil, not just the existing Presbyterian communities among ex-patriots, southern or otherwise. Morton and Lane were most cordially received by Blackbird and Chamberlain, and it was decided among them that the southerners who settled at Santa Barbara would be on Morton and Lane’s circuit, even though Simonton and his associates had established congregations in Rio in São Paulo provinces before the southerners arrival.


Blackford also met South Carolinan and fellow  Presbyterian Dr. James McFadden Gaston during the latter’s scouting trip to Brazil in late 1865 and the two became close friends. Of Blackford and his wife, Gaston remarked “there seems to be no political prejudice against the course pursued by the South,  on the part of either, and indeed Mr. Blackford had sympathized with us in the recent struggle to resist the encroachments upon our constitutional rights by the Federal Government. After Blackford was widowed, he married Gaston's daughter Nanny. Gaston and Simonton were probably very distant in-laws by way of various ancestors hailing from Antrim County, Ireland, where the Gastons appear to have been relocated Huguenots. These commonalities suggest that shared religious values and extended kinship may have provided the common ground on which social relationships in Brazil were founded among individuals who were on opposite sides during the war.


Although Dabney ultimately decided not to migrate to Brazil, he did not lose interest in that country. He maintained contact with Edward Lane who once forwarded a letter from Robert Meriwether that gave an account of his farming experiences in the Santa Barbara area where he recorded crop yields about four times those of similar acreage he had farmed in South Carolina and Georgia. Meriwether was heavily indebted at war’s end,, later moved from Santa Barbara to Botucatu( Sao Paulo province where he bought land and slaves, cultivated a hundred thousand coffee trees, built a sawmill, , and founded a Presbyterian Church. As late as 1872, Dabney was still wrestling with “the subject of suitable occupation for our farming people, to make their efforts more remunerative” and was considering “Cuban seed leaf tobacco”. Some Confederated around Santa Barbara were already raising that crop. Their homemade cigars were popular in Rio and enjoyed by the Emperor Dom Pedro II. Dabney’s ongoing interest in Brazil is also reflected in his nephew, John Watkins Daphne, who became a missionary there in the mid-1880s. By then, his uncle was in Austin working toward founding a new seminary. John's middle name of Watkins, (his mothers maiden name,) is another Broad River surname.


SOURCE:  A Confluence of Transatlantic Network   Pages 182-187

See also Simonton and Blackford


Charles Davis

Charles  Davis  Daniel as  born on  March 17,  1856, in  Ft.  Claiborne.

Monroe  County,  Alabama.   On November 11, 1885, he married Lena

Anne Kirk,  born in Gay Hill,  Washington County,  Texas on  July 22,

1865, in  Waco, Texas.  He died on September 12, 1929  in Waco , Mc-

lennan  County . Texas as did his wife,  who died on  March  17, 1944.

Lena was the daughter of James Leonard Kirk and Emily O. Goodlett.

Charles D. Daniel  and  his  wife  were  appointed as  missionaries  of

FMB-SBC, on  May,14, 1885, to Brazil.  Here, they worked until  1892,

returning to the USA.

C. D. Daniel's parents were  Joseph Stephens Daniel and Anne Hazel

-tine Harrison.  Daniel,  along with  Camilla and  Drucilla  tried  to

emigrate  from the USA  to  Para,  after the Civil War, with  the agent,

Major · Lansford Warren Hastings. The steamship named 'Margaret”  that took them, with other passengers, had to return to the port of Moble, shortly after their departure on 25.03.1866, for having manifested smallpox on board. Eleven passengers died. (EJiJ. The.Confede rate Exodus to Latin America, by L. F. Hill, p. 33. Rare specimen at the National Library, Rio de Janeiro). On July 31, 1866, there was the entry into Rio de Janeiro of a "J. Daniel his brother, a son, 2 sisters and a brother-in-law", from New York.Ha 'o registr? leaving Rio de Janeiro for Santos, on 07.11.1866, of an "J. Daniel and his family". This information was found in the passenger lists published in the city's daily newspapers. In Santa Barbara, SP, there are three records of Purchase and Sale of a site, according to Book 12, p. 29 and 46; Book 15, p. 37 et seq. On December 11, 1866, Joseph Daniel buys it and on October 8, 1874 sells it, by demand. At the time of this sale, he and his family were already returning to the USA, as the date of the (Title) search was October 1,1872, in which it is said that he was temporarily withdrawing to the USA. . However, his name was not  on passenger lists leaving Rio de Janeiro. It is assumed that he and his family left the port of Santos directly for America, passing through Rio on October 26 or 27, 1872, as passengers in transit.


The parents above, Joseph and Anne, confirm the stay of the family of C. Daniel with the information that follows, concluding that he was in Santa Barbara from November 1866 to October. From 1872, more or less. '


After the Civil War, the father of C. D. Daniel emigrated to Brazil and settled in the Province of Sao Paulo. After 7 years he returned with his family to Navarro Co., Texas. USA. 1875, Charles's father passed away, leaving the responsibility of the family to his widowed mother and small brothers on this son's shoulders.


Charles's strongest religious impressions were those that were experienced during a storm on the trip to Brazil. At the time, he was a boy between 9 and 10 years old and the contrast of the calm confidence of the pious father with the that of the sailors, left him, certainly and well recorded, that God is the refuge.


_ At the time of his stay in Brazil, he had received education from his mother. He learned to speak Portuguese almost as fluently as his mother tongue, by living with the Brazilians while in Brazil.


At the age of 21, in the summer of 1877, Charles was converted and October 2.1877., Was baptized into the Bethesda Church, Richland Association, Corsicana, Navarro Coounty, Texas, by pastor E.R. Freeman. The desire to become a preacher of the Eangelho came into his heart, soon after. And also to return to Brazil. But his little preparation and lack of means and love the responsibility that · n.nha to take care of your family, in the absence of father, prevented him, immediately, to continue in his intent. But over time, he ended up enrolling at Waco University. While he was there  he  had the  opportunity to train himself  in preaching. On  November 4,.1883,  Charles Davis Daniel was con- secrated to the Ministry of the Word. He took over the pastorate of the Baptist Church in Dawson, Texas, which had, at the time, only 13 members. He also served part-time, at the Baptist Church in Lorraine, McLennan County Texas.


On June 13, 1988, he graduated from Waco University, and was appointed 'missionary to Brazil, by FMB-SBC.


Lena Kirk was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Kirk, Baptists. EJiJ. 1880, when she was at the University, she became a student of Anne Luther (Bagby) and it was from this contact that Lena felt her love for Missions.


For this summary, the information is contained from the following:

H. A. Tupper, A Decade of Foreign Missions 1880-1890, p. 85, 412, 413, 417-423, 425, 455, 477, 540, 630, 740, 741, and others, according to the contents of said book; also, MPRJ, p. 331, 368, 377.

 SOURCE:  Loosely translated and paraphrased from the original Portuguese manuscript.


Uma  Contribuiao  para  a  Hist6ria dos Prim6rdios do Trabalho Batista no Brasil    1985

Betty  Antunes  de Oliveira

DANIEL, CHARLES DAVIS (1856–1939).Charles Davis Daniel, Baptist missionary, was born in Monroe County, Alabama, on March 17, 1856. At the end of the Civil War his father took the family to Brazil. During their seven-year stay Daniel was educated by his mother and learned to speak Portuguese fluently. In 1872 he and his family moved to Navarro County, Texas. His father died three years later, and Daniel assumed responsibility as head of the household. In the summer of 1877 he joined the Bethesda Baptist Church of the Richland Association. He desired to teach but hesitated because of his lack of formal education and his responsibilities at home. He committed himself in 1880 to becoming a preacher and was licensed on July 31, 1881. In the fall of that year he entered Baylor University with the financial assistance of Baylor president R. C. Burleson. He studied Latin, Greek, and Spanish, in addition to the standard curriculum. While at Baylor Daniel met his future wife, Lena Kirk, and gained ministerial experience at the Dawson and Lorena Baptist churches. On November 4, 1883, he was ordained. He graduated from Baylor in June 1885 and was married in San Antonio in November.

After graduating he was appointed by the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention as a missionary to Brazil. There he pastored several Baptist churches and edited the Brazilian Baptist, a newspaper. Two of his children were born during that time. He remained in Brazil until 1889, when his failing health necessitated his move back to the United States. For the next ten years he served churches in San Antonio and Mineola and did mission work among Mexican Americans. At the close of the Spanish-American War and the granting of Cuban independence by Spain in 1898, Daniel was appointed by the Home Mission Board to work as a missionary in Cuba. On the island he reorganized and revitalized Baptist work, which had deteriorated during the war. The four western provinces of Cuba were under his authority, including the city of Havana. Daniel remained in Cuba through 1905, when he returned to the United States due to ill health.

From 1906 to 1922 he was active in mission work among Hispanics in Texas. He spent the first few of these years in Gonzales and El Paso and later traveled around the state. In 1925 he returned to his former pastorate in Lorena, where he remained pastor as long as his health allowed. He was an active Mason for more than fifty years. On September 12, 1939, Daniel died in Waco after a long illness. He was survived by his wife, five children, three brothers, and nine grandchildren.


Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists (4 vols., Nashville: Broadman, 1958–82).


William James







The sons of William Robert Daniel and Margareth Elizabeth Thomas Daniel - Grandchildren of William James Daniel and Nancy Angeline Norrs Daniel - Great-grandchildren of William Hutchinson Norris and Mary Black Norris. Standing: Ruffus Edward Daniel (1902) Albert Downing Daniel (1899), Arlindo Allen Daniel (1890), Almeida Fredeick Daniel (1905) Seated: Robert Francis Daniel (1879), Luiz Guilherme Daniel (1886). This photo is missing John Thomas Daniel (* 08/03/03). Daniel Family Photo



Hercule Pierre

A personal letter from P. Dansereau, living at Belle Vue in

Espirito Santo, to his brother-in-law, George Lanaux of New

Orleans, displayed the muted enthusiasm of a man under-taking

a new venture.5 This French family was very close-knit and it

had been a major step to separate and begin a new life. Dansereau

expressed his desire to have his wife's brother join him in

Brazil, but also warned that his wishes might be too strongly

expressed and that his urgings could lead to disastero Then the

letter included a more optimistic section:

I am still under the same impression that he who has capa-cities

will find in the course of twelve to fifteen months a chance to

work with success and advantage. But what everyone doesn't

have, is the patience to await this chance; all those who come

here make a few visits in the neighbor-hood of Rio, stay from

one to three months, then go away satisfied that there's nothing

to be done in Brazil, It's true for those people, who want to go

American-style  (in a hurry;) let them not come here; it's the

biggest folly they could commit.

Dansereau believed that such individuals would fail in Brazil because they would never find what they sought, "the recovery of their fortune with all its gratifications Determination was the necessary attitude in order to succeed (and pecuniary assets were of considerable help).

A "sugar man" from New Orleans, unidentified by Mr. Dansereau, had constructed a refining factory using a "sulfuerls" process, about which he had consulted George Lanauxo Although the sugar manufactured was of fine quality, it did not appeal to the Brazilians. Despite this temporary failure, the "sugar man" had purchased a fazienda* on the Machahe River there, at the time of Dansereau's letter, he was full of hope and "confident of successHis hopes encouraged Mr. Dansereau.

George Lanaux -was assured that, should he decide to migrate to Brazil, his family would exert itself to insure his success. He was warned however, that with few exceptions the women (including his sister, Oneida Dansereau) were very difficult to satisfy and tended to nag their husbands.

The settler then explained that his harvest of sugar cane was fine and that his sugar factory was under cons-truction. He thanked providence for having made him "sufficiently detest the Yankees to give him the courage to go away from them and to Brazil." Mr. Dansereau could see no hope for the United States. He felt there would always be taxes, which evidently bothered him greatly« He wrote:

I don't glimpse any happiness and tranquilities for the United States^ The good time is past. If the Democrat^ return to power, it will be desireable to take away the right of suffrage from the Negroes, then race war, there will be committed abominations that will further ruin the country, it will be only in ten and probably twenty years that one will arrive at an organization or system of work.

He predicted that such work as could be done at the end of a period of violence would be in the manner of the peasants of Europe working on tiny plots of sub-divided land.

A final work requested that Lanaux send his aging mother to Brazil to be with her daughter in the late months of her pregnancy and to provide the old woman the opportunity to live in a happy land where she might "show her prayers to the little blacks" and be mocked by the parrot.

During the same period, January I868, a letter was written to George Lanaux by his brother Adrian. Adrian charged George with the responsibility of family monies and commended him on success in some unstated new business „ He said that he was unable to find workers to help with his harvest, but that he was planning to deal with a Mr. Emlle Fredinl, who would provide workers, presumably Italians. If he was unable to obtain these helpers^ Adrian was in fear that he would be forced into the embarrassing position of hiring Negroes. He had threshed several barrels of rice for which he had no market» He was worried about repaying a man who had loaned him money for provisions and arranged with his brother to send money for sugar houses which he hoped to sell. Perhaps George had also helped to finance his brother's operations« From a postscript on the letter, information was revealed which indicated that George owned sections of land near his family and was in the market to sell them. A Mr,, Thompson and a Colonel Barrow were interested in buying half of some of his bottom land for growing rice.


Again in the summer of I869,  Dansereau wrote his brother-in-law in New Orleans. The mood of the letter indicated a considerable change from that of the January 1868 epistle. During the intervening months, the Dansereau family had lost their fifteen months old daughter, Marie, the victim of a brain Infectlon. Oneida Dansereau's health had failed, but another baby had been born on the seventeenth of July and her husband hoped that the new little girl would help to dispel Oneida's grief and ill health. Mr, Dansereau himself had suffered long spells of fever and exhaustion. A happy note was the mention of the marriage of Dansereau's eldest son, Cevy, to a Miss Boudreau. Another son, Henri, had plans to return to the United States and then to Canada, to bring his sister to Brazil. Mr. Dansereau thought that Henri would visit Louisiana and perhaps Adrian, who evidently had returned to the South, would join the party again, accompanying the children on their journey to Brazil.

Concerning this business, Mr„ Dansereau admitted that he had acquired a partner who was not dependable. Although Dansereau had many assets^ such as fine sugar cane and a large sugar house, he was unable to obtain credit because of the way the contract had been drawn by his Brazilian partner. He had found another man to take the place of his partner, but the partner refused to relinquish his position, thinking that Mr. Dansereau would be able to turn their association into a profitable venture. When creditors began to press, Mr. Dansereau was able to rid himself of  "a man, mean, miserly and ambitious as are generally the people of his race." This move meant abandoning all of his fazlendas, at a great loss. Later, Dansereau bought three faziendas, each of which had a sugar house, plus l80 slaves, 190 draft-oxen and crops ready to harvest. A new partner was acquired for the enterprise, a man named J. B. Rodocanache, who had businesses in New York and New Orleans.

If less exuberant than in earlier months, Mr^ Dansereau still had faith in his future. He did seem most dis-couraged concerning the character of the Brazilian businessmen; "I don't yet know one single Brazilian who had helped an emigrant from the South of the United States^ although they admit that their methods are infinitely superior to those of the people of the country." Still, Dansereau found the country "beautiful and good," And again he repeated that the man who expects to succeed must have determination.

He mentioned that a steamer, the Guerriere, transported duped Americans back to the United States a few days previous to the writing of his letter. He said that he had seen so many people disappointed that he could no longer encourage anyone to move to Brazil, but for himself, he was satisfied. Dansereau felt that general conditions in Brazil were more favorable for his family than they would have been In Louisiana.

H. P Dansereau   -  Biography

Dansereau, Hercules, M. D., of Thibodaux, Lafourche parish, is a retired practitioner, still retaining to a remarkable extent the exercise of his mental and physical faculties, at the patriarchal age of 82 years.  The blood of the pioneer French colonists of Canada which flows through his veins has endowed him with that sturdiness of constitution for which the early settlers were noted.  Peter Dansereau was the first of the name to come to America, from France, about the year 1700, locating near Montreal, Canada, where many of the family still reside.

Hercules Dansereau was born in province of Quebec, May 2, 1832, the son of Joseph Dansereau, merchant, born at Vercheres, Canada, in 1797, died 1888; his wife, Rosalie (Chagnon) Dansereau, also a native of Vercheres (1800), died at Vercheres in 1875.  After receiving his primary and grammar school education at home, the subject of this sketch entered Montreal college, where he remained 7 years.  Next he studied for three years in the College of Physicians & Surgeons, of Montreal, now Laval university, and then, for one year, studied in the College of Medicine, Albany, N. Y., graduating in 1853.  During the latter year, Dr. Dansereau came to New Orleans, followed the clinics and lectures at the  Charity hospital for a few months, and went to the town of Pointe-a-la-Hache, in the parish of Plaquemines, where he practiced medicine until 1858, when he moved to Thibodaux.  The town was then in its infancy, in the midst of a sparsely-settled region, and surrounded by woods.  On account of the limited  population of Thibodaux, the doctor extended his practice to all parts of the surrounding country, sometimes traveling many miles in fair and in bad weather to hasten to the relief of his fellow-citizens. 

Dansereau believed that such individuals would fail in Brazil because they would never find what they sought, "the recovery of their fortune with all its gratifications Determination was the necessary attitu